Tag Archives: african american toledo

National Archives Research and New Information on WHITFIELD Family

Recently I visited Washington, DC and the National Archives.  I was looking into the pension files of US Colored Troops who were either members of my or my spouse’s family, or people of interest on my list of early black/colored Toledo families.

One of the family’s on my list is the WHITFIELD family.  When I first began this blog, I had found some information that lead me to believe that my earliest WHITFIELD ancestor, named Elias WHITFIELD born approximately 1862-1863 was from North Carolina.  I did some extensive research on the North Carolina WHITFIELD family and they did have a person with the same name and approximate same age who I believed had moved to NW Ohio and was a relative.

In my hobby of genealogical research, I often continue to research the same individuals over and over again.  I had a nagging feeling  that Elias may have been related to one of the earliest black families in Toledo also with the surname of WHITFIELD who were enumerated on the 1850 Census in the City of Toledo. I also discovered that the NC Elias WHITFIELD had moved to Washington, DC with his family and I later found a census record of him from the 20th century when my 3rd great grandfather Elias WHTIFIELD died in 1897.  Due to that discovery, I deleted all of the information I had on my NC WHITFIELD line and started from scratch back at Elias.  I did however, make a tentative link of him to the 1850 Toledo WHITFIELD family and decided to do some off-line research on this family so placed John WHITFIELD’s pension file at the top of my list of ones to request on my visit to the National Archives.

On the 1850 Toledo census the WHITFIELD family was headed by a man named John W. WHITFIELD Sr. and his suspected wife named Hannah.  Per the 1850 Census  – John  was born in approximately 1823 in Virginia.  His wife Hannah was born in Canada around the same year.  They had within their household five children in 1850 – John W Jr., Jacob and James (twins), daughter Ann, and baby Robert WHITFIELD.  All the children were born between 1840 and 1850.

While in DC, I reviewed the file of John W. WHITFIELD Jr. in regards to his pension.  Both he and his younger brother Jacob are known veterans of the Civil War and both fought in the US Colored Troops, 5th Ohio regiment.  They both enlisted here in Toledo for the regiment and went to Delaware County for training.  During their service, both experienced some medical issues/illnesses and John Jr.’s pension file centered on him having had a finger shot off during the war along with a cough where he spit up blood, which was labeled as a “lung disease.”  His younger brother  Jacob died in 1868 in the City of Toledo so did not recieve a pension, but John Jr. filed for one first in 1889 then again in 1892 after a law was passed where veterans didn’t have to prove a disability to receive a pension.  John Jr. had lived primarily in Toledo prior to and after the war but died in Cleveland, Ohio in 1905.

In his pension file, John Jr. had to create a statement and tell a bit of his life and service in the military, including any injuries he suffered.  In his statement, he stated that he was currently married but had been married before to a woman named Mary EDWARDS.  EDWARDS is another early black/colored Toledo family and I had them on a spreadsheet for future review.  Due to seeing Mary EDWARDS’ name, I decided to do some digging on her and her family to see if she had any children and if she and John Jr. could potentially be the parents of Elias WHITFIELD.

Reviewing the EDWARDS family showed that Mary EDWARDS and John WHITFIELD Jr. married in Toledo in 1887.  Also that Mary was born in 1851.  Due to the late marriage date and Mary’s year of birth, she could not have been the mother of Elias due to him being born between 1861-1863 and she was very young at that time.  It was possible but not likely for her to have a child so young and the marriage date didn’t make sense.  John Jr.’s pension file also included a note that he had not had any children so this made him not likely to be the father of Elias Whitfield.

However, I discovered that Mary EDWARDS had an aunt named Lavina EDWARDS born approximately 1840.  Lavina was the sister of Mary’s father – William EDWARDS Jr.  There was an entry in Toledo’s marriage records  via Family Search that showed that she married John WHITFIELD Sr. in 1859.  John WHITFIELD Sr. was no longer living in Toledo in 1860 and I had always wondered where he’d moved to or if he’d  passed away.  Doing a query with him and Lavina, showed that a John WHITFIELD was a saloon keeper living in Detroit in 1860 with a woman of the same age as Lavina, who was enumerated as Elvina.  I thought that that may have been a mis-spelling by the enumerator due to it being similar to Lavina  Within their household was also a Robert WHITFIELD who was the  youngest child of John Sr and Hannah in 1850 and it stated he was born in Ohio.  Also within that household were two other children – Samantha WHITFIELD born 1852 and a baby named Mary Ann who was born in 1860.  So I believe that the 1860 household was indeed John and Lavina Whitfield who had been married in Toledo in 1859.

I did some digging into Samantha WHITFIELD and it did show that her father’s name was John WHITFIELD on her death record.  She was also enumerated in the household of William EDWARDS Sr.  in 1870 in Toledo, Ohio.  William EDWARDS Sr., born approximately 1795-1803 was the father of Lavina EDWARDS, he was living with her in Toledo by 1880.  This further solidified a relationship between these two families.

Some digging into baby Mary Ann from the 1860 Census in the household of Elvina and John WHITFIELD Sr., a death certificate turned up showing that she was the daughter of Lavina EDWARDS and John WHITFIELD.

Another person also had a death certificate that showed she was the daughter of Lavina (this time THOMAS – Lavina married Montgomery THOMAS after the death of her second husband Arthur SPENCER) and John WHITFIELD.  This daughter was named Lulu and she was shown to have been born in approximatly 1863-1864.

A review of the 1870 Census looking for Lavina showed that there was a Lavina SPENCE living in Toledo in the household of Arthur SPENCE.  Within that household included a male named Eli SPENCE.  I concluded that John WHITFIELD must have died between 1860 and 1863 as Lavina re-married a man named Arthur SPENCER in 1863 in Toledo.  By 1880, Arthur also must have passed away because Lavina was listed as a widow and she later re-married a man named Montgomery THOMAS in 1884. Due to her having a male named Eli in her household, I thought maybe this Eli SPENCE(R) was more than likely Eli(as) WHITFIELD.  I’ve seen before in censuses where the surnames of family members were incorrect, mostly due to the re-marriages of their parents and them being given the name of the widowed mother or stepfather instead of their biological surname.  I also  never have seen an Eli or Elias Spencer listed in the city directory of Toledo, however starting in the 1880s Eli or Elias WHITFIELD was listed several times until his death in 1897 and later he was listed as the deceased husband of my 3rd great grandmother Martha JONES WHITFIELD.

Unfortunately Elias WHITFIELD died prior to the establishment of death certificates in the City of Toledo.  So his parents were not listed on the death register since that information was not collected prior to the 20th century in Toledo.  I have never found him on census records in Toledo as Elias WHITFIELD, only in the city directory starting in 1883.  Due to these connections discovered via information on the EDWARDS family as a result of reviewing John WHITFIELD Jr.’s pension file, I am 95% sure that Eli SPENCER may be Elias (also labeled as Eli in directory information) WHITFIELD.  I base this on the fact that Eli would have been the middle or youngest child of John WHITFIELD Sr. and Lavina EDWARDS.  Mary Ann was born in 1860, Eli in 1862-63 and Lulu in 1863-64.  Both Mary Ann and Lulu lived until the 1920s so had a modern era death certificate that listed their parents as John and Lavina, so I feel safe concluding that my 3rd great grandfather Elias WHITFIELD was actually the son of John WHITFIELD Sr., and brother of John WHITFIELD Jr.

I am very excited to explore this connection further and the EDWARDS family, especially since William EDWARDS Sr.  would be a potential 5th great grandfather.  He was a Barber in Toledo and worked and/or lived in the same location as Barber William MERRITT who was a known black UGGR administrator in Toledo.

REFERENCES

1850 Census – Household of John Whitfield

Marriage Record of John Whitfield and Lavina Edwards 1859

1860 Census – Household of John Whitfield

1860 Census – Household of Willien(William Sr.) Edwards – includes Mary Edwards

Marriage Record of Lovinia Whitfield and Arthur Spencer 1863

1870 Census – Household of Arthur Spence 

1870 Census – Household of William Edwards

1880 Census – Household of Lavina Spencer

Death Record of Lulu WHITFIELD VENABLE

 

Early Black Toledo Families – DENT Family

I have always read that many of our early black Toledo families settled here due to being runaway slaves and escaping to their freedom.  Due to Toledo’s distance from the southern slave holding states and its proximity to Canada, I am sure that many of our early black residents were indeed fugitives seeking to own themselves and gain control over their own lives and provide their children with greater opportunities.  Unfortunately, it is very difficult at times putting together the stories of our early resident’s lives to confirm their history, especially if they were not well known and just lived ordinary lives.  For me, the lives of ordinary people are just as important and inspiring as the more well known, so focusing on some of our unknown early black Toledo residents has been rewarding.

Due to the difficulty of researching little known persons, I was excited to find an interesting bit of information about one of the families on my list to research – the DENT family lead by patriarch John DENT.

John DENT and his wife Sarah were first enumerated in NW Ohio on the 1860 census.  At the time, they had in their household four children – Mary, John, Julia, and baby George who at the time was the second youngest black resident in the city at age 2 months.  John was listed as a laborer from Kentucky.  Wife Sarah did not provide her state of birth, but I later discovered she was also from Kentucky.

Some digging into this family produced a source from the University of Kentucky Library system called the “Notable Kentucky African American Database.”  Within this link was information about the ancestry of a woman named Hazel THOMPSON GOMEZ who was the granddaughter of John and Sara DENT.  It states that John DENT escaped slavery by riding his horse into Ohio.

I was very excited to find this information that provided a link to one of our early black residents escaping bondage and finding freedom in our area.  I looked up the book from which this information was taken, which is titled “In Darkness with God:  The Life of Joseph Gomez, a Bishop of the AME Church,” by A. L. Gomez-Jefferson – a great granddaughter of John and Sarah DENT.   The book related John’s escape as follows:

Her maternal grandfather was John DENT, a former slave born in Paducah, Kentucky.  He had escaped from slavery by simply jumping on his master’s horse and “riding like hell” to freedom.  For a while  he settled in Ripley, Ohio, where in 1849 he married Sara Jane GRUBB, a young woman of African parentage who had been born in Sterling, Kentucky.  The couple moved first to Columbus, Ohio and then to Toledo.  Julia Ann, Hazel’s mother, was born in March of 1858, one of their twelve children.

A review of available source material showed that John DENT was living in Wayne, Fayette County, Ohio on the 1850 Census so he probably escaped slavery in the 1840s.  He was enumerated in the household of a woman named Sarah SMITH who also had Kentucky as her state of birth.  Due to this Census document, I believe that Sarah SMITH was the grandmother of John DENT’s wife – Sarah Jane GRUBBS.  This is due to the fact that also within Sarah SMITH’s household was a couple named John M and Emily GRUBBS and their children who were close in age to Sarah.  Them having the maiden name of Sarah as their surname and the other GRUBBS youths being close in age to Sarah, lead me to believe that Sarah Jane was the daughter of John M and Emily GRUBBS.

John DENT and Sarah Jane GRUBBS were actually married in Wayne County, Ohio in 1849, not Ripley, as stated above.  Ripley, Ohio was a known town with significant Underground Railroad activity and activists, so John DENT may have received assistance there and lived there prior to going an hour north to Wayne.   In 1850 a new Fugitive Slave Law was passed in the United States which required state governments and citizens to assist in the capture of runaway slaves so they could be returned to their owners and re-enslaved.  This law caused a lot of panic amongst black families both formerly enslaved and those who had long been free.  Black families during this era moved to what they considered safer areas when they could to avoid being re-captured and sent into slavery or to avoid being kidnapped and made a slave when they had never been before.  It seems the DENT family also fled southern Ohio after 1850 per the book noted above.  They eventually settled in NW Ohio, which was a safer distance away from slave catchers.

As stated above, by 1860, the DENT family lived in NW Ohio, in Oregon specifically.  They were enumerated numerous times between 1860 and 1910 in the city.  John DENT died on May 10, 1890.  His death record said that he died of a concussion suffered via a fall.  He was listed as being 80 years old on the death register, but due to his headstone shown below and other census documents, he was probably in his late 60s or early 70s as he was consistently labeled as being born between 1820 and 1833.  The document said he had been a resident of Toledo about 50 years at the time of his death and that he lived on “Bridge” street in the 6th Ward of the city.

A review of the book noted above provided a sad account of the death of John DENT.  The wife of Joseph GOMEZ, of which the book details his life (and is a great read for anyone interested in early black civil rights leaders) was named Hazel.  She was the daughter of John and Sara DENT’s daughter Julia Anne by  her second husband George THOMPSON, a man who apparently looked white and was of mixed race ancestry (European and Polynesian descent).  Hazel THOMPSON was light skinned and received some  cruel treatment from Sara DENT due to Sara’s personal prejudices against whites/people who were light skinned based on her experiences with whites and the circumstances of her husband’s death.  Page 39 of the text highlighted above, stated:

Ironically, Julia’s father, John DENT, died from a concussion received when he was thrown down a flight of steps by some Polish men during a racial incident.  After that, Julia Anne and her four children went to live with his widow Sara, who made life miserable for Hazel because she was of light skin.  Sara had no use for “yeller niggers,” and that included her granddaughter, who had the “blood of the men who killed her husband.” 

I have been slowly going through early City of Toledo death registers and have noticed a little more than a handful of black men who had been labeled as being “found drowned” or who were labeled as being “murdered.”  It made me wonder about the racial atmosphere in the city during the 19th century in the city and how it probably was much worse than what I had initially thought for black residents.

The text also highlighted the limited opportunities for employment that blacks faced nationwide in this era, whereas Julia DENT made sure to send her daughter to Wilberforce University in Ohio so that she would at least have an opportunity to be a teacher and not live as a domestic all her life.  Black women in America have a history of always having high employment rates due to the precarious economic situation of black families.  Both husbands and wives usually worked and helped support the family.  Both genders were limited due to their ethnicity – men were usually general laborers and performed the most difficult and dangerous jobs for less pay than white men in many cases.  Black women, including Julia DENT,  were usually domestic workers – maids, cooks, or washer women (doing laundry) and both men and women worked long hours.  Julia told her daughter, per the text, after Hazel came home from Wilberforce after only a week with homesickness that Hazel would have to go back because Julia wanted to ensure that :

“she could get an education and not have to work in somebody’s kitchen all her life.”

 

Julia Dent – Early Black Toledoan, mother of Hazel THOMPSON GOMEZ

Though John DENT’s death was and is tragic, it is heartening to me that he lived the majority of his life free, and not as a slave.  He took ownership of his life and endured tough circumstances in regards to race prejudice and even a tragic death, but succeeded in raising a large family in the city.  I’ve seen many obituaries of the DENT family in the Toledo Blade through even the 2000s and feel that there are probably still a significant amount of descendants of this family in Toledo.  Hopefully they are aware of the story of John and Sara DENT and take great strength and pride from the hard work and suffering of their early black Toledo ancestors who endured such tough times to give them an opportunity to better themselves today.

Will end with the fact that I am related to the DENT family by marriage through a 4th great aunt – Martha JONES DENT who married John DENT Jr., the brother of Julia DENT shown above.  So I was enriched by learning more about their lives while researching the family’s history.

REFERENCES:

In Darkness with God:  The Life of Joseph Gomez, a Bishop of the AME Church,” Annetta Louise Gomez-Jefferson

1850 Census – Household of Sarah SMITH (includes GRUBBS and DENT families) accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1860 Census – Household of John DENT  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1870 Census – Household of John DENT  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1880 Census – Household of John DENT  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1900 Census – Household of Julia DENT THOMPSON  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1910 Census – Household of Tena DENT ALEXANDER accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

Death Record of John DENT died 10 May 1890 – Ohio County Death Records 1840-2001 accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

Photo of Julia Dent – accessed via ancestry.com public images 9/11/2017

Cemetery Photo of grave of John DENT – Find-a-Grave – Forrest Cemetery, Toledo, Ohio – accessed 9/11/2017

Early Black Toledo Families – GATLIFF/GATLEFF

As was shared in the post regarding basketball legend William (Bill) McNeil JONES, his parents were William A. JONES and Jessie L. GATLIFF.  Both the JONES and GATLIFF families lived in the Toledo area prior to 1900 before the Great Migration got into full swing and the black population of Toledo swelled like many other Midwest industrial centers.

I thought it would be interesting to explore some of the families of early black/colored Toledoans and due to my curiosity regarding those families from my transcriptions of the 1840 through 1900 census information (I am currently working to transcribe the 1900 census).  Unlike other persons I mentioned in this blog, a majority of these other black/colored individuals and families weren’t well known in the community.  However, the history of regular people’s lives is just as important and interesting as more well known persons and a review of the family of Jessie GATLIFF is well worth sharing some information.

Jessie L. GATLIFF/GATLEFF  was born in Chillocothe, Ohio in approximately 1882.  Her parents were John H. GATLIFF/GATLEFF Jr. and Amanda GOINS/GOINGS/GOENS.  She was the second of three children born to John Jr. and Amanda.  She was the middle child between older brother Clark and younger brother Everett James.

The GATLIFF/GATLEFF family had lived in Chillicothe since approximately 1870.  John H. GATLIFF/GATLEFF Jr. was originally born in Rockcastle County, Kentucky  and was the son of John H. GATLIFF Sr (1823-1910) and Cynthia GATLIFF (1824-1913).  This couple threw me for a few loops in researching them due to both Cynthia and John Sr. having the same surname.  A review of Milton GATLIFF/GATLEFF’S death certificate – a son of John Sr. and Cynthia, and due to a clue revealed in a book about Cynthia’s mother Rose, it was shown that John Sr. took the surname of his wife when they were married.  Due to that, I have not been able to track his family back further than John Sr.  On his death certificate, shown below, his parents were unknown.

Cynthia GATLIFF/GATLEFF was also born in Kentucky in approximately 1824.  Her mother Rose GATLIFF/GATLEFF was held as a slave and had to sue for her freedom in the courts of Kentucky.  It took her nearly 20 years but she was eventually set free.  As a free woman, she was enumerate on the 1850 census in Rockcastle County, Kentucky with some of her children and grandchildren.  Rose was born in Virginia in approximately 1772 and was the daughter of a “mullatto” allegedly of mixed European and Native ancestry.  She was described as having blond hair and blue eyes.  Her case was based upon her stating that her mother was a native American and therefore she could not be held as a slave.  In the late 18th century, indigenous people were no longer considered slaves and if she had been born to a Native mother, she would automatically be free.  According the book “Rose, a Woman of Color:  A Slave’s Struggle for Freedom in the Courts of Kentucky,” by Arnold Taylor, Rose, through her attorneys claimed that she was made a slave through illegal maneuvering.  Jenny, Rose’s mother thought that she was putting Rose into an indentured servitude period, it was Rose and her attorney’s position that instead, Rose was instead enslaved.  Documents were drawn up labeling her as a slave.  The prosecutors alleged that due to the records of Virginia, as they discovered paperwork that supported that Rose was sold as a slave as a girl, that she was indeed a slave.  They also alleged that her mother Jenny was not a Native American and instead a mullato with some negro ancestry.  Many witnesses were brought forth for both Rose’s and the state’s case.  Her attorney’s position was, that of course the persons who profited off of Rose would take advantage of her position as a mullatto child of Indian and white ancestry and make her a slave for their benefit, so the jury should not accept that the documents of Rose’s alleged status as a slave should be believed.

The book above was very interesting and gave a good genealogical account of Rose’s family, including her mother Jenny and her suspected father who was a white man that Jenny worked for. It also discussed that one of Rose’s daughters – Nancy GATLIFF/GATLEFF had been freed due to winning a case in Indiana, whereas her owner had taken her to that “free” state for more than 6 months and left her there.  Nancy also won her case.  One of the arguments against Rose, ironically was that since Nancy was freed due to Indiana’s laws regarding slaves, that Rose herself, must legally be a slave and not eligible to be freed based on her mother’s ancestry.  Rose GATLIFF/GATLEFF died died a free woman around 1870 and at that time most of her children moved to Ross County, Chillicothe, Ohio including Cynthia and John Sr.

Due to John Jr. and Amanda being listed on the 1880 Census in Ross County, City of Chillicothe and because both Jessie L, born in 1882 and Everett, born in 1885 had birth records on file in Ross County, it can be determined that John Jr. did not move away from Ross county until after 1885.

John Jr. was one of 10 known children of John Sr. and Cynthia GATLIFF/GATLEFF.  Two of his brothers – James and Frank GATLIFF showed up in the Toledo City Directory in 1892 and 1895.  By 1900, John Jr. and his sons Clark and Everett GATLIFF/GATLEFF were living  in Toledo.  Clark GATLIFF was also listed in the city directory in 1899 so we can conclude that members of the GATLIFF family moved to Toledo between 1890 and 1900.

Per the census document below, John Jr., Clark and Everett were living in a boarding house in 1900 located at 132 N. Erie Street.  That address is now a parking lot located near the corner of Erie and Jefferson Ave in downtown Toledo.  In 1900 John Jr. was working as a laborer.  His oldest son Clark was a Porter in a barber shop  while younger brother Everett, who was only 14, had “At School” listed as his occupation. By 1910, Jessie was also living in Toledo and was married to William JONES.

1900 CENSUS – GATLIFF/GATLEFF

There was never a record of Amanda GOENS/GOINS GATLIFF in Toledo and I have yet to find a death certificate for her.  John Jr. re-married in 1914 to a woman named Martha YOUNG.  He is last found in genealogical records on the 1920 census where he lived with his second wife Martha.  John Jr. died in Toledo in 1921.   His last known residence was 580 Norwood Ave, which was listed as his residence on both the 1920 census and his death record in 1921.  That address currently is just an empty lot very close to interstate 75 in Toledo and the home probably was demolished to make way for the freeway.

John Jr.’s daughter Jessie GATLIFF married one of my 4th great uncles – William Allen JONES on April 27, 1907.  Together they had nine children, eight lived to adulthood.  Both Jessie and William were active members of Toledo’s black community from the early 1900s until their deaths in the 1950s.  Jessie’s obituary labeled her as a “Church and Organizational Leader” and listed the many organizations that she worked and lead during her lifetime.  Her obituary is listed below.  She died on April 18, 1959:

As stated earlier, Jessie was the mother of William (Bill) McNeill JONES one of the first black basketball players who integrated professional basketball.  Her youngest child – Elizabeth JONES WILSON died in Toledo in October of 2014.

Additional information regarding the brothers of Jessie GATLIFF JONES was also discovered, including an obituary of Everett James GATLIFF whose daughter Dorothy GATLIFF BROWN was hired as one of Toledo’s first black female police officers in 1946.

 

Below is a lint to a short family tree of the GATLIFFs.  Please note that these particular descendants of Rose GATLIFF/GATLEFF are the Toledo branch.  If there is any inquiries about this family please email me for a complete tree at blackintoledo@gmail.com

GATLIFF family link

REFERENCES:

1850 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 3/3/2017 (Household of Maragret GATLIFF)

1860 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of Cynthia GATLIFF)

1870 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of John GATLIFF)

1880 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017  (Household of John GATLIFF)

1900 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of John GATLIFF)

1900 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 3/31/2017 (Household of Albert SPEAD – boarding house)

1910 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of Cynthia GATLIFF)

Ohio Deaths  1908-1953, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017 – death record of Cynthia GATLIFF

Ohio Deaths 1908-1953, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017  – death record of John GATLIFF Sr.

1910 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

1920 US Census, via familysearch.og; accessed on 3/31/2017 (Household of John GATLIFF Jr.)

1920 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

Ohio Deaths 1908-1953, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017 – death record of John H. GATLIFF Jr.

Michigan Marriages 1868-1925, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017 – marriage record of John H. GATLIFF Jr and Martha A YOUNG.

Ohio County Marriages 1789-2013, via familysearch.org; accessed 11/15/2016 – marriage record of William A. JONES and Jessie L. GATLIFF

1930 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

1940 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

Toledo Blade Obituary Index, via Toledo Lucas County Public Library 2/28/2017; Jessie L JONES published April 20, 1959

Toledo Blade Obituary Index, via Toledo Lucas County Public Library 2/28/2107; Everett James JONES published January 20, 1953

Toledo Blade; “Blazing a Trail” published 2/26/2003

Black Culture Series – Education and Intellectualism

As was hinted upon in the second part of this series regarding The Black Family, education has always been a focus of the demographic.

Since the 1970s educational statistics for the black demographic have greatly increased regarding high school graduation rates and college entrance and matriculation.

Unfortunately these positive gains are many times overshadowed by pervasive, negative depictions of blacks in media which serve to show black Americans as a demographic that lacks a desire to lift itself via education and hard work. A historical, cultural view of education and intellectualism in black America, however, refutes this depiction as a false stereotype.

As has been shared in this series and in this blog, black Americans have lived in this country for centuries as a majority enslaved population and minority “free” status. Both enslaved and free blacks sought an education due to the understanding that knowledge is power and has the potential to create vast opportunities for the individual, family, and community at large.

Unfortunately for many centuries black Americans were denied the opportunity to be educated. Many are aware that it was against the law in southern states to teach slaves to read. This was due to the belief that it would make a slave unwilling and unsuited for life content to be held as property. Free blacks in many areas were also denied the right of an education. They were “free” in name only and even though they were forced to pay taxes, they were not allowed to participate in society as “free” men and women.

Many “free” and slave states had laws that stated that black children were not allowed to attend public schools. Those families who could afford to do so would hire teachers and tutors to educate their children. In many free communities, the families would also would bind together and raise money for land and buildings to create their own schools. Often these private schools for black children were held in the local black church if one was available.

Here in Toledo, the Warren AME church in the 1850s began a private school for black children.  Due to the low population of blacks in the area, they were unable to sustain the school.  Local blacks in Toledo, including father Garland WHITE paid for private tutors when they could afford to do so.

In 1870 Mr. WHITE filed suit against the City of Toledo due to them excluding his daughter from attending the school in the ward of his residence.  As shared in the post regarding the History of the Toledo Public School district, the city integrated its schools starting in the 1870s.  Per a newspaper article published on March 3, 1871 in the “Weekly Louisianian” a black newspaper published out of New Orleans, LA – Mr. WHITE filed suit against TPS because of its segregation policy that excluded his daughter from attending the school in his ward.  The article, shown below, stated he owned property valued at $10,00.00 yet his daughter, due to her race,  was denied the right to attend, even though  he paid property taxes that supported that school.  More research is required but it can be concluded that since TPS integrated in 1873 that Mr. WHITE won his case.  This occurrence in our local area is one of many similar stories that shows the historical dedication to educational opportunities that black families have consistently maintained.

Many are aware that slaves were not allowed to learn to read as shared above.  Because of it being taboo, many blacks who were enslaved in the south had a yearning for knowledge and a desire to be educated and to educate their children.  They were aware, following the Civil War that being uneducated was to be at a disadvantage.  They were much more likely to be victimized due to a lack of literacy.  Many of the North’s black teachers, schools, and social/community organizations, galvanized around providing educational opportunities for newly freed slaves.  Abolitionist societies also formed new goals of sending white, former anti-slavery activists to the south to educate the newly freed slaves.  The federal government, during the Reconstruction period, opened “Freedman’s Schools” for black people to attend.  These schools were filled with blacks seeking an education.

 

Due to the lack of public education in the south for poor white children, even they were allowed to attend those schools during the Reconstruction era.  By 1870 there were nearly 2000 Freedman’s Bureau Schools in the south. They served to educate both children and adults.  Information obtained during the Reconstruction era showed that the areas with Freedman’s schools had a literacy rate, ten years post Reconstruction, that was 6 points higher than areas that had not been fortunate enough to have a Freedman’s school in their community.   Examples of this dedication to acquiring knowledge can also be observed by studying the lives of more famous black  historical figures – two of which were recently in the media:  Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois.

One of my favorite black men in history is Frederick Douglass.  As many are aware, he was born a slave.  When he was young the wife of one of his masters taught him the alphabet until her husband told her that doing so would ruin him.  Fortunately, she had succeeded a bit and his thirst for knowledge was born.  Young Douglass tricked white boys into teaching him to read and he would later go on to escape slavery and become the most well known black abolitionist in America in his era and even today.  After his escape from slavery and the publishing of his widely read “Narrative,” many whites could not believe that he had written the text himself due to the belief that blacks could not learn to write as eloquently as Douglass.  The “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave” was written only seven years after Douglass escaped slavery.  He was one of the first to prove that skin color and ethnic origins was not a factor in intelligence and the ability to learn – a desire for knowledge and a dedication to that desire was all that was needed for him to become one of the most famous black activists in American history.

Dr. William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B) DuBois is also a very well known black intellectual.  Dr. DuBois was born in 1868 to parents who had been free people of color.  He was the first black man to receive a PhD from Harvard University.  He also published one of the first historical studies on the role of blacks in a political era entitled “Black Reconstruction in America.”  His later work “The Philadelphia Negro” was the first sociological study of urban black Americans.  His longevity as a researcher, activist and writer is impressive and at its core he always exhibited the fact that black Americans, when not limited by intense race based prejudice and oppression, would have similar socio-economic successes in life as other American ethnicities.    Many who have heard of Dr. DuBois are usually aware of his views that are believed to have differed substantially from those of Booker T. Washington, in that he favored what was then called a “classical” education for black students instead of only an “industrial” education focused on specific trades.  This debate lives on in regards to both of these men and their educational philosophies and it is important to note that both Dr. DuBois and Washington believed that blacks were able to be educated in the same ways as whites and other Americans.  That if taught, blacks would learn, that racism and oppression were a factor not only in educational opportunities but also in economic and commercial opportunities.  And especially if knowledge was desired, it would be consumed.  Their differences primarily centered around politics, economics and opportunity, not a disagreement on the ability of black Americans to learn.

In summation, this modern era whereas more black Americans have completed an education than ever before, is a true testament to the cultural aspects of a dedication to education.  This attitude regarding education – that it is a means to an improvement in the condition of one’s life, has never faded in black America and is at an all time high.  Of course, like all socio-economic issues, education is an area that is still a subject of hot debate and where there are many ideas about ways to increase the quality of education in order to have more positive economic outcomes based on a particular type of education.  These debates harken back to those of Dr. DuBois and Washington mentioned above and are a lasting legacy of the culture’s focus on education within the black demographic.

James Madison BELL – “Bard of the Maumee” – Poet and Friend to John BROWN

James Madison Bell around 1900

Listed within the 1870 Census post was James Madison BELL who after more newspaper digging, I discovered was a well known abolitionist and poet who moved to the city of Toledo in 1865.  Mr. BELL is considered one of the most well known black poets of the 19th century and primarily focused his pieces on the abolitionist cause.

In 1870, Mr. BELL was living in Ward 8 in the City of Toledo. He was called Madison BELL and was listed with his wife Louisa and his 7 children, the youngest named George BELL was born in July of 1870.

James Madison BELL was purportedly born in Gallipolis, Ohio in 1826 which was the location of a large concentration of free people of color in Ohio.  However, on the 1850 Census, Mr. BELL indicated that he was born in Virginia.  A review of a previously mentioned site freeafricanamericans.com lists a free “BELL” family in Virginia and James Madison BELL may have been a descendant of this family and may have come to Ohio as a child.  As was shared in my VINEY-VIRES post many free Virginia blacks moved out of the state in the 1820s and 1830s.  BELL may also have been the child of escaped slaves.  Other than the 1850 Census every other document I located, stated that he was born in Ohio.

Mr. BELL moved from Gallipolis when he was a teenager to Cincinnati, Ohio where he trained as a “plasterer.” Plasterers created the old lathe and plaster walls that are still standing in many old Toledo homes and elsewhere across the country.   He also attended the Cincinnati High School for Colored People at night, which then was associated with Oberlin College.

James later married Louisana SANDERLIN in Cinncinnati.  In the 1850s he moved to the Chatham-Kent area of Ontario, similar to many of my own ancestors who eventually ended up in Toledo.  The emigrationist to Canada are the subject of a lot of my research of late.  There are many theories about why free blacks in the US moved to Canada but the most logical one that many historians agree upon is the fact that the 1840s and 1850s were very hostile to free black people in regards to many laws that were created that placed burdens on black families or that stripped them of their right to vote.  Another reason for the movement of many of these African Americans is that they may have been run away slaves from long before the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was passed.  This law required free states to assist in the capture of runaway slaves and many blacks who had run away and started new lived in “free states” feared they may be re-enslaved so went to Canada in order to be assured of their and their children’s freedom.

For those who were not runaways and whose family was either emancipated via Gradual Emancipation that took place in many northern states, or those who were descendants of indentured servants who were never enslaved, they still faced highly oppressive conditions in the US that contributed to their decision to leave this country.  Many states made free blacks pay a tax just to live in those states, yet would not allow them to sit on a jury, to file a complaint against a white man, or even own a weapon.  In some states,  educating black children was against the law as a result of these discriminatory laws even if they were free born.  States even passed laws stating that free blacks who left the state for 90 days could be legally enslaved upon re-entering the state, which caused a loud outcry from black activist during that era since many of them had family in other states and would face enslavement if they ever moved then needed to come back to visit or take care of relatives.  Many free people of color became fed up with the  discriminatory laws and instead left the states that were most hostile, including Indiana, Pennsylvania (due to the threat of kidnapping primarily), Maryland, and Delaware.  I’ve discovered that a large amount of free people of color moved to the Chatham-Kent area, called “Canada West” in order to be assured that their rights as free men would be protected.  Much of the historical research I attempt on the community of blacks in SE Ontario primarily leads me to sources that focus on escaped slaves and rarely mentions the issues that free blacks faced in the US and what drove them to resettle in Canada, but I’ve discovered that a large amount of the families in the Chatham-Kent area actually were free people prior to moving to that area and not recently escaped slaves.

James Madison BELL  and his family were amongst those who chose to leave Ohio and immigrate to SE Ontario.   During his time in Canada, he hosted John BROWN the famous abolitionist who, today is well know for his failed insurrection attempt at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in 1859.  Prior to instigating the raid, John BROWN stayed at the home of James Madison BELL in Chatham while planning the attack on Harper’s Ferry.  Mr. BELL gave an interview to a journalist in 1889, thirty years after the failed raid occurred.  As is referenced in the article, Mr. BELL lived on Indiana Avenue, in the Pinewood District, currently called “Central City.”  Further information obtained from Census records show he lived at 559 Indiana, which is near the corner of Indiana and City Park Avenues.  He lived across the street from the site of the current Warren AME Church, of which he was a member.  A link to the entire interview is in the reference section of this post, but a snippet of the interview is below.  It was interesting to me to note that prior to beginning the interview, the journalist commented about how well Mr. BELL spoke, something that alluded to the past and continued stereotyping of black Americans via media.

 

 

JOHN BROWN’S RAID.

THE DELIBERATIONS AND PLANS LAID AT CHATHAM, ONT

An Interesting Reminiscence of the First Break Toward Freeing the American Slaves.

A correspondent of the St. Louis Globe Democrat, writing from Toledo, Ohio, says: Among the forty-five persons who attended the secret Convention, at which John Brown presented his famous Provisional Constitution and Ordinances, at Chatham. Ontario, May 8, 1859, was James Madison Bell, a colored man, and at that time a resident of Chatham. Mr. Bell was then a bright, energetic man of about 32 years, and was intimately connected with John Brown during his stay in Ontario, and, in daily intercourse with him, became quite familiar with all of his plans. Mr. Bell is now a resident of this city, and one of its most respected citizens. He resides on Indiana avenue, and conducts a large plastering business. A Globe-Democrat representative called upon Mr. Bell at his home, and found him ready and willing to tell nearly all he knew about John Brown. He is a good scholar, and an easy and interesting conversationalist, using the most correct language, of which he seems to have a perfect control

Only a few questions were needed to start Mr. Bell, and, his memory working as he went along, he seemed to take as much delight in telling as the reporter did in listening.

“I first saw Mr. Brown in the spring of 1859,” commenced Mr. Bell, leaning back in his large arm chair and closing his eves, as if to stimulate thought. “He came to my house at Chatham, Ont. — Canada West we called it then — and presented a letter from Wm. Howard Day, colored, a friend of mine, a graduate of Oberlin, and afterward for some years a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature. “The letter was dated at Toronto, a few days previous, and simply introduced the bearer as John Brown, asking me to do what I could for him during his stay in Canada.

After Brown’s raid, BELL moved to California and lived there until after the war concluded.  He then moved to Toledo and made Toledo his home for the remainder of his life.

After the Civil War, Mr. BELL was active in fighting for the Civil Rights of black Americans.  Contrary to what many people today believe, the  “Civil Rights Movement” started immediately after the Civil War, not in the 20th century.  Those who were ardent abolitionists prior to the war, became heavily active in the fight for civil rights of newly freedmen and women.  Mr. BELL was active at Warren AME Church here in Toledo.  He was the Sunday School Superintendent between 1870 and 1873.  He also traveled the country in the winter “off season” of his construction and plastering work.  He was known as a great orator and often read his poems while delivering speeches about the need for the acknowledgement of the rights of black people in America.   His wife is believed to have passed away in 1874 and Mr. BELL  was listed as a widower by the 1880 Census.  I have yet to find his wife’s death record but will continue to search.

The early pastor of Warren AME Church and subsequent Bishop – BW Arnett convinced Mr BELL  to write down his poems and publish a collection of 27 poems, which was published in 1901, titled “The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell.”  Mr. Bell died in 1902.   He was considered one of the main voices of black America during his lifetime and was one of the most well known black poets in the country.  He was called the “Bard of Maumee” due to his residence being in Toledo.

REFERENCE INFORMATION:

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 60, Number 126, 16 Jan 1889 accessed via California Digital Newspaper Connection on January 20, 2017

Life of James Madison Bell www.encyclopedia.com accessed on January 20, 2017

The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell www.archive.org accessed on January 20, 2017

1850 Census – Household of James Bell – Cincinnati, Ohio Ward 11

 

Toledo’s First Black Doctor – Dr. James FIELDS

After reviewing the 1860 Census for the black and colored population, I made an edit to that post for additional suburban communities of Lucas County due to not including them with my initial transcriptions. One family included in the additional citizens lived in Maumee, Ohio at the time and was the FIELDS family.

In 1860 the FIELDS family was headed by James FIELDS. James FIELDS was listed as a “Doctor” on the census, which was interesting considering the nature of his stated employment. He would be the first known black American doctor working in the Toledo area if the entry was correct regarding his occupation.

One of my favorite, boring hobbies includes reading old newspapers online. Recently, I was VERY excited to find an obituary of James FIELDS that was published in a newspaper called The Elevator out of San Francisco, California. This publication was a “negro” publication, meaning it was a black owned and published newspaper in the 19th century. These early negro publications were the infancy of what is now called “the black press.” They focused on major issues of the day and were primarily written by black journalist and funded by black advertisers and subscribers. Unfortunately, Toledo itself did not get a black owned newspaper until the mid-1900s but due to the size of the city, residents of Toledo, including former residents of the city were mentioned in various black newspapers of the 19th century.

The obituary of Dr. FIELDS was published on June 12, 1868 and an image of the obit is included in this blog post. A transcription, which provides wonderful insights about Dr. FIELDS’ life is below. The obituary was written by one of the journalist on staff of The Elevator and provided many interesting details about the personality and life accomplishment of Dr. FIELDS. Unfortunately, I could not ascertain who wrote the obituary, but if I discover the author, I will edit the post with his name.  UPDATE:  I quickly found out who wrote the obituary and published newspaper The Elevator – he is one of the founders of the black press – Philip Alexander Bell

As someone who loves to read about black American history, I was especially pleased in reviewing this obituary and thought it was something others may enjoy. Dr. FIELDS as is mentioned in the obituary also was disabled due to having had a leg amputated as a child, so he would probably be the first black and first disabled doctor to have practiced in our area. He also was a writer, a member of various organizations and he attended the Free African School in New York, City, one of the few places in the early 19th century that black children and teens were able to receive a high quality education in NYC. It was an organization founded by white benefactors, including Founding Father – Alexander Hamilton. The Free African Schools were later absorbed in the NYC public school system for black children. Dr. FIELDS later moved to Adrian, Michigan with his family where the obituary stated he died.

A perusal of records on FamilySearch.org verified that Dr. James Fields died in May of 1868 and was a resident of Adrian, Lenawee County at the time.  Prior to moving to Maumee, Ohio in the 1850s, he was enumerate on the 1850 US Census living in New York City, Ward 1 with his wife and son.

Of interest personally is the fact that there were other FIELDS families in Toledo around the time that Dr. FIELDS moved to the area.  It is unknown whether or not Dr. FIELDS is related to these other families, one of which included George FIELDS mentioned in a previous post as being Toledo’s first professional black photographer.

One of his former associates, mentioned in the obituary Dr. James McCune Smith was the first black doctor to run a pharmacy in America and was a staunch abolitionist and heavily active in working to obtain the rights afforded to black Americans in this country.  He founded the first national, longstanding civil rights organization for black Americans called the National Council of Colored People in 1852.  It can be assumed based on the alumni of the class of Dr. FIELDS that FIELDS  was also involved in the abolitionist movement and early Civil Rights Movement of the late 19th century following the Civil War.  His classmate Dr. James McCune Smith was also the physician at the Colored Orphans Asylum in 1863 during the height of the Civil War and when the New York City Draft Riots occurred (as is alluded to in the film “Gangs of New York”).  In this riot, hundreds of free New York City black citizens were attacked, including the orphanage for black children, which was burned to the ground.

OBITUARY TRANSCRIPTION:

MEN WE HAVE KNOWN
NUMBER FOUR
DR. JAMES FIELDS
By a paper received from Mr. John A. Fields, of Adrian, Michigan, we learned with sorrow the mournful intelligence of the death of his father, Dr. James Fields, who died on the 6th of May ultimo.

Dr. Fields was one of our oldest and dearest friends. He was born in the city of New York, September 20, 1805, where he resided until about fifteen years ago, when he removed to Toledo, Ohio and from thence to Adrian. When about twelve or fourteen years of age he had the misfortune to lose a leg. It was caused by the maltreatment of a physician, who mistook a simple bruise for an ulcer, and by his injudicious treatment it ultimately into a white swelling, and when too late more competent medical advice was consulted and amputation was necessary to save his life.

Being thus maimed and incapacitated for arduous avocations, he became studious, and having acquired all the education then imparted in the New York African Free School (where the writer hereof was a fellow classmate), he sought private tuition, and finally became a thorough English scholar, and also acquired considerable knowledge of the classics.

In 1830 he was one of the founders of the Philomathean Literary Society. We were seven. After a lapse of forty years, four of us survive – Rev. John Peterson, Ransom F. Wake, of New York, Robert Banks, now of St. Paul’s, Minnesota and ourself. We have had to chronicle the deaths of three of our early associates in that institution – Dr. David Ruggles, Wm. L. Jeffers, and now James Fields. Of the others who became immediately connected with us, Dr. James McCune Smith, Rev. Isaiah G. Degrasse and Henry Nott are numbered with the dead. Robert McDougall and Theodore C.B. Vidall still survive.

At the time of the assassination of Elijah P. Lovejoy at Alton, Ill, in November, 1837, James Fields pledged himself that he would never drink ardent spirits until slavery was abolished in America, and we believe he religiously kept his promise.

In 1842-3, in connection with Messrs. Peter Ogden, T.C. B., and U. B. Vidal, G. T. Downing, Henry Smith and a few others, he established the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, for which a charter was obtained from England, the Independent Order of America having refused to admit colored members, or grant a charter for opening a separate Lodge. The Grand United Order of Odd Fellows is now a flourishing institution, numbering perhaps twenty Lodges. In 1846 he went to Bermuda, W. I., and organized two Lodges of the Order on that island.

James Fields was a Calvinistic Presbyterian, a member and for many years clerk of Shiloh Church, of which Rev. Theodore S. Wright was pastor. He was a fine writer and a deep philosophical thinker. He contributed frequently to the Colored American, and the essays of “Uncle Ben” were always welcome to our columns.

He was always devoted to the study of medicine, and before leaving New York he became quite proficient in the Botanical practice. Believing he could find a larger field and a wider scope for the exercise of his talents, he emigrated to Ohio, where he was very successful and became favorably known as the Indian Doctor.

Thus has gone to his long and silent home one whom we have known and loved for more than half a century. For over two-thirds of that long period we were almost daily companions. Since our separation we have maintained friendly correspondence, not frequent, but always loving and affectionate. He has lived to a good old age – long beyond our expectations. He was for many years afflicted with a disease of the heart, which at last terminated his existence. Far away in the boundless prairies of the Peninsula State, my heart is in the coffin with my friend.

Copy of original obituary:

James Fields Obituary file

SOURCES USED:

African American Newspapers (accessed via home with library card from TLCPL number and pin on 1/18/17) database – Elevator, published as The Elevator (San Francisco, California)06-12-1868Page [2]

New York, 1850 federal census, Household of James Fields via FamilySearch.org

Find A Grave Memorial – grave of James Fields via FamilySearch.org

Michigan Deaths 1867-1897 via FamilySearch.org (line number 32)

Wikipedia – James McCune Smith (see link above)

University of Chicago Press – The New York City Draft Riots of 1863 (see link above)

Alton, Illinois in the Civil War – Biography of Elijah  P Lovejoy (see link above) NOTE:  Elijah P Lovejoy was a white abolitionist who was attacked by a pro-slavery mob and killed based on his work to help free the slaves in the USA

NOTE many of the individuals mentioned in the obituary were well known black abolitionists and if readers are interested information should be queried about them as many of them have amazing life stories!

The ENOS Family and Hinson Village, PA

The ENOS family (variant spellings include ENAS/ENUS/ENNIS/ENUS/ENIS/EINES/ENS, etc. many others!) is one of my maternal grandfather’s line of ancestors that I discovered this past summer when researching the SNIVELY family who will be the subject of another post primarily about military research.

In the fall of 2016, I went to Harrisburg, PA in order to visit the Pennsylvania Archives since I have discovered that many of my maternal ancestors who came to Toledo have ancestry from that state.

For instance, both the ROBINSON and JONES families in the previously posted entry regarding the JONES/ROBINSON family have their roots in Pennsylvania. James Edward ROBINSON, whose obituary is listed in this blog was originally from Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. His wife Nancy JONES ROBINSON was born in Ohio but her mother was born in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania as were her older brother and sister.

The SNIVELY family mentioned above, one of whom married an ENOS female ancestor, I have traced them to Columbia, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and believe they may have originally lived in Franklin County, PA which was where a large amount of white SNIVELY’s lived.

The female ancestor who married into the SNIVELY family was named Mary Ellen ENOS. Her surname was spelled in so many different variations over the years that it was ridiculous how much time I spent trying to find out what the heck her name really was!

I first started tracing her after finding the death certificate of her son Grandville SNIVELY Sr.  His death certificate shown below stated that his mother’s maiden name was EINSES.  This was one of the weirdest names I had ever come across.  I thought maybe it was some sort of strange French name due to the reference regarding Montreal, which is in Quebec, the French speaking province of Canada.  However,  I could not find anyone who married Grandville’s father Jeremiah SNIVELY whose last name was EINSES.  The second time I found reference to Mary was in Grandville SNIVELY’s marriage records.  He was married twice, the first time to a woman named Mary CHANDLER.  The marriage record from Michigan also stated that his mother’s maiden name was EINES, which was similar to EINSES but I could not find anything about Mary other than these two entries for her son Grandville SNIVELY who is my 2nd great grandfather.

This past year, I have started a trend of not only performing searches on direct ancestors – like grandparents and great grandparents, but also on their brothers, sisters, cousins, etc.  I knew that Grandville SNIVELY’s father was named Jeremiah SNIVELY, also known as Jerry SNIVELY.  The SNIVELY’s originally were from Pennsylvania, as stated above.  They moved to the Chatham-Kent area of SE Ontario, Canada in the 1850s.

I searched for Canadian births of SNIVELY surnames and saw Grandville along with a younger brother named Nathan SNIVELY.  Both were born in Ontario.  I did some digging into Nathan to see if I could find his marriage and death records, among other sources and found his marriage record to wife Mary TRUSBLOOM.  In that record, it stated that his mother’s maiden name was Mary ENOS.

I did another search for Mary with the surname of ENOS and discovered her listed with her parents – Nathan Bailey ENOS and mother Julia Ann ALLISON ENOS in Chester County, Pennsylvania on the 1850 Census of the US.  She was listed also on the Canadian Census of Ontario in 1861 with her parents in the same area where the SNIVELY family had also moved to in Canada.

I had to do a manual search through the Ontario, Canada marriage records due to them not being able to be queried at the time on the Family Search website.  Knowing that Grandville was the oldest child based on Census records and him being born in 1868 due to a birth record I found, I browsed through each year of marriage records from 1863 through 1870 until I found an entry showing that Jeremiah SNIVELY married Mary ENESS on November 30, 1867.  Her parents were listed as Juliana and Baly ENESS and she was born in approximately 1844 in the United States.

Since finding a connection to the ENOS family via Mary, I have been doing a lot of research into this line on my family tree.  Recently I discovered that the father of Nathan Bailey ENOS was Ceasar ENOS via the Chester County, PA “Poor School Children” records.  Chester County, PA is now one of my favorite places in my genealogical research since they have a wealth of information on their own site, for free that you can peruse and obtain reference material on one’s family.

I have discovered through the Chester County records along with Census records that Ceasar ENOS was a free black person who was originally from the state of Delaware.  He was born in approximately 1780 and lived in Sussex County, DE before moving to Chester County, PA.  Both of these areas are very close to each other geographically.

I also discovered due to that trip to Harrisburg, that Nathan Bailey ENOS lived in a community called Hinson Village or Hinsonville, Pennsylvania, which was a community of free black people where Lincoln University (PA) is currently located.  Lincoln University was this country’s first established Historically Black College/University (HBCU) and was founded in 1854.

Nathan Bailey ENOS was enumerated in this community with his wife Julia and six of his children in 1850.  A review of deeds at the Pennsylvania Archives showed that Nathan Bailey ENOS (called Bailey ENOS/ENICE) purchased land from a man named Jesse HINSON in Chester County, PA in 1843 for $200.  He sold the land in 1847 for $400 to a John BURNS.  I believe that Bailey ENOS and his family moved to the Chatham-Kent area – the Buxton Settlement in Canada around 1851-1854.  Bailey was enumerate on census records and land records in Canada from the 1860s-1870s.  He then came back to the United States in around 1879-1880.  He was enumerated in Monroe, Michigan with his wife and some of his children on the 1880 US Census.  Unfortunately, I have yet to find his death certificate, but I am pretty certain that he died in Michigan.  Most of his children moved to the Ypsilanti area first, then to other parts of Michigan.  Mary ENOS SNIVELY died in Ypsilanti, per the previous post regarding obituaries and death records, in 1880 of tuberculosis.  Her son Grandville SNIVELY later moved to Flint, Michigan where he divorced his first wife Mary CHANDLER.  There he met Reva MORRISON who is my 2nd great grandmother  and his 2nd wife.  They later moved to Toledo in the early 1900s.

In researching the ENOS family, I have been fascinated with Hinson Village/Hinsonville and its history.  Bailey ENOS initially bought his land in Hinsonville from Jesse HINSON whose  father – Emory HINSON Sr., founded Hinson Village in the 1820s when he became the first black owner of land in that part of Pennsylvania.  I have been trying to figure out how these families were connected or if they were related over the course of my research.

Currently I am at a mysterious sort of roadblock that I am slowly climbing up and around in regards to the connection between the HINSON and ENOS families.  I checked out a book from the University of Toledo Carlson Library called “Hinsonville, A Community at the Crossroads – The Story of a 19th Century African American Village.”  In this book there is not much mentioned about the ENOS family except deed information showing where Bailey’s land was and a mentioning of the fact that he bought the land he owned from Jesse HINSON.

The author, on page 20 describes that not much is known about the HINSON family.  Many African Americans believe that this HINSON family is also related to the HENSON family of Maryland, of which the famous explorer – Matthew HENSON who was the first black man to go to the North Pole descended from.   Emory HINSON Sr. of Hinsonville was also from Maryland but not much is known about his life.  However, in connection with my ENOS family I think that the book provided some insight into who the mother of Bailey ENOS could be.  Page 20 says as follows:

Ironically, although the hamlet bears Emory Hinson’s name, his small family did not remain long in the area.  By 1841, Hinson’s wife had died.  In keeping with what appears to have been a pattern among widows and widowers in that rural community, Emory Hinson remarried within three years, taking a woman named Keziah as his second wife in February 1844.  Keziah ad been born in Delaware in 1795, but the county and local records reveal little more about her except that she did not bear any children to Emory, or at least none was ever listed in their household.  To be sure she was already forty-nine years old when they married.  Then after her husband’s death in 1852, she left Hinsonville.

Bailey ENOS purchased his land in Hinsonville and moved to that area around the time that Keziah married Emory HINSON Sr.  I am thinking that Keziah may have been Bailey ENOS’ mother.  On page 21 of this book, it was stated that one of the early presidents of Lincoln University – Horace Mann, wrote that Emory HINSON Sr. sold his lands in order to move to Upper Canada in 1851.  Bailey ENOS and his family also moved to “Upper Canada” which is what SE Ontario was referred to at the time, in the early 1850s.

Bailey ENOS also had a daughter named Keziah, which I thought was a pretty unique name.  So even though there is only my coincidental hunch, I am leading to the conclusion that Keziah married Emory HINSON Sr. after both of them became widowed.  After 1830 there are no records mentioning Ceasar ENOS that I can find so I assumed he may have died between 1840 and 1850 similar to the death of Emory HINSON’s wife and that they married each other and one of Emory’s sons – Jesse HINSON sold land to Bailey due to him being a step-brother.

More digging is needed on this but I am excited to look more into the mystery.

The site I mentioned in another post – freeafricanamericans.com also has an entry about a free ENNIS/ANNIS family of Delaware and Maryland and I believe that Bailey and Ceasar ENOS are connected to the family detailed on that website.  I am hoping that eventually I can find out more information linking the ENOS family and the HINSON families and other free families that lived in Chester County, PA and the Buxton Settlement in Canada.

Death Records for Genealogy Research – What you might not be looking at! (Part 2)

As stated, I felt that Obituaries should have a separate entry being that they can provide additional information and details that can easily lead to more research opportunities.
In the Toledo area we are very fortunate that our Local History Department at the Main Branch of the Toledo Lucas County Public Library will provide electronic copies of Obituaries published in the Toledo Blade for free. The Toledo Blade Obituary Index is provided via the Ancestry.Com site along with FamilySearch.org but you can also just go to their site directly, which I personally prefer and look up the person you are searching for. I prefer to go to the site because there is an option once you get a “hit” to request that they email you a copy of the obituary within two weeks. The library asks that you only make 3 requests per week. I make sure to follow those guidelines as I feel it is such a great service that they provide to us for no cost. Many other libraries around the country charge a minimum of $5-$25 for them to do this sort of research for you. So I am very appreciative of that.

This past year, I have probably put in a request for over 50 obituaries! The obits published in the Blade vary from just the list of deaths that are still published in the paper for public notices, to short write-ups to very extensive, in-depth obituaries. Some examples of obits are below:

Here is the obituary of Robert TRAYNUM Sr. He was the first of my TRAYNUM line to come to Toledo via the Great Migration from South Carolina. He died in 1933 and his address and cause of death was contained in his death notice. I found via using Google Maps that he lived a block from where I grew up in South Toledo! I also discovered that other TRAYNUM relatives actually lived across the street from where I grew up 70 years before and I never knew! His house is now a parking lot that I used to ride my bike in as a girl.

The earliest full Obituary that I’ve been sent is of James Edward ROBINSON, published in the blade in December of 1910 who I discovered had the nickname of “Bones.” The obit stated that Bones was one of the “one of the most well known negros” in the City due to his affiliation with an organization called the Toledo Cadets for about 40 years. Using information from his obituary caused me to look up the Toledo Cadets to learn about them. I found a book and purchased it about the history of the organization and was shocked that it included a copy of his picture! It is 120 years old and was published in 1896 and I feel very lucky to have found such a distant image of my 3rd great grandfather!

Interestingly the book also had a picture of William A Jones, the father of basketball legend William McNeill JONES written about in a previous post (Bill Jones – Basketball Pioneer). William JONES’ nickname was “Inky” and he also had an impressive obituary written up, which is below.

One of my favorite obituaries is of a 4th great uncle names Francis/Frank BURTON. Frank was born in Charlevoix County, Michigan, which is north of Saginaw and near the Petoskey area. Due to his obit mentioning that he worked for the WPA project on the Toledo Zoo Aquarium and Ampitheater, I think of him when I take the kids to the zoo. I loved that it spoke of what a hard working man he was and was surprised that it said he was a Potawatomi Indian. I have yet to see any other documentation of any native ancestry, but the area they lived in was a place where this tribe lived/resided at the time of Frank’s birth.

 

Other obituaries outside of Toledo I’ve found were primarily in the Ypsilanti, Michigan area whereas there is another blog similar to this one on the black history of Ypsilanti called South Adams Street 1900.  Mary ENOS SNIVELY only had a death notice shown below. Her husband Jeremiah SNIVELY was a veteran of the United States Colored Troops (USCT) and fought in the Civil War. He and three of his brothers, who were all living in Canada at the time, came back to the United States in order to serve to help free the slaves in America. Jeremiah died on the same day as another “colored veteran” also named Jeremiah as noted in his obituary. Since Jeremiah SNIVELY was stated to have been a GAR member I am hoping to do some digging into Michigan GAR records to see if a picture can be found for him. Jeremiah SNIVELY’s obit also says he was a Mason, as did William A JONES’ above. I’m unsure if the Mason’s keep records but I plan on finding out from my relatives who are still members of the organization here in Toledo to see if I can learn more information about those ancestors who were involved in that group.

 

So make sure to thoroughly review obituaries, even death records.  I personally like looking up the homes where my ancestors lived via Google Maps.  Many of them are still standing and in the case of my TRAYNUM ancestor it was interesting to know I played where his home once stood.  The organizations that your ancestors were involved in, many of them kept historical records on members or they issued “Resolutions” that were read at the funeral and placed into safekeeping by that organization and many times you can request a copy.  You may be fortunate enough like I was to find a 120 year old picture of a relative as well.

It is also important to take note that all the information contained in obituaries may not be true so to not rely 100% on that information.  The reference to being a Native American in Frank Burton’s obituary, though interesting, I never believe these references to be true unless I find evidence to substantiate that claim.  Many people white and black claim to be “Indian” when they really don’t have any Native American ancestry and it is just a family myth.

 

1870 Census – Colored Population in Toledo (and Surrounding Communities)

I have completed transcribing the 1870 census of the black and colored population of Toledo and its surrounding areas. I want to note that I also went back and reviewed other communities surrounding Toledo, within Lucas County for the transcribing of Census information for the years 1840, 1850, and 1860. Communities included in those census revisions are Maumee, Monclova, Whitehouse, Waynesville, Spencer, Springfield, Sylvania, Oregon, Swanton, Manhattan, and Adams townships. Not all of the revised census transcriptions include black or colored residents, but 1860 specifically included some black/colored residents in Adams and Maumee.

In regards to the 1870 census, the data for this census is below. The number of black and colored families increased in the Lucas County and Toledo area from only 121 families to 246, an increase of over 50%. The total individuals enumerated increased from 269 to 768.

Please note that I did find that some families were enumerated twice in the 1870 Census in the the Toledo area and they are included in the totals as it was a raw transcription. I noticed some duplicate names (particularly the FIELDS family), but since this took multiple days, I did not go back and delete any from the spreadsheet below.

The 1870 Census was the first Census in America that included all formerly enslaved individuals by name. After the Civil War, many black Americans were very transient in nature and traveled across the country looking for relatives and work. During the time that this Census was taken, the Reconstruction Era was still ongoing, and the subsequent Jim Crow/Black Laws had not yet taken effect in the southern part of the United States where a majority of black Americans resided.

Some interesting local history information that can be obtained from the 1870 Census about blacks  in Toledo and its surrounding communities in Lucas County are:

One of Warren AME church’s first documented pastors Bingman ARNETT was enumerated in Toledo, Ward 4. He was 32 years old and was born in Pennsylvania. Two other black men were listed as Ministers or Clergymen but it is unknown which churches, if any they were affiliated with in the Toledo area. They were John WHITE and William WEARING.

George FIELDS had an occupation of “Photographer” and was the city’s first black professional photographer. He originally worked out of a building previously owned by William H. Merrit mentioned in a previous blog post who was involved in the Underground Railroad in Toledo.

Toledo had two black Saloon Keepers – William CARTER and John TILLON/TILDON (also listed as a Restaurant Keeper on the Census but was in the City Directory as a Saloon Keeper). Due to the black population being so small, these business owners catered to a diverse crowd within the city’s Ward 4.

Benjamin TALBOT was listed as a blacksmith in the city and was one of Toledo’s oldest residents.  TALBOT lived in Ward 1, which is now Downtown Toledo and per the article mentioned in the 1862 Race Riot of Toledo, he lived near the corner of Erie and Jefferson Street. His home was ransacked and his furniture destroyed in the 1862 riot. In 1870, he was 76 years old and was originally from Maryland.

Lucy DAY was listed on the Census as a Teacher and can be recognized as one of the first black educators in the city. Lucy DAY lived in Ward 3 with her daughter Florence who was born in Canada. Lucy DAY was born in Ohio.  It was interesting that all of the black/mullatto children eumerated near her were listed as having the occupation of “Scholar.”

My fourth great grandmother – Mary ANDERSON JONES was listed with her children, including my third great grandmother Nancy JONES ROBINSON as living in Washington Township in 1870.  This family, I believe located to Toledo in approximately 1865.  They are my first documented ancestors to have moved to Northwest Ohio and were originally from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania by way of Ross County, Ohio where Nancy JONES ROBINSON was born.  By 1870 Mary’s husband John JONES is suspected to have passed away.  There is reference to a death of a John JONES in the city of Toledo death registers in 1867, but this John JONES cannot be confirmed to be the one who died in 1867 due to the common name.

The most popular surname in the Toledo area was JONES.  There were 24 individuals with the surname JONES who lived in various parts of the cities and in different townships.  It is unknown whether or not they were related.  John JONES, my fourth great grandfather, on previous census records from Ross County, Ohio in 1860 stated that he was from Maryland.  There were no JONES’ in Toledo who stated that they were from Maryland and the only JONES family from Pennsylvania, where Mary ANDERSON JONES hailed was her own household.

Residing In Family # Name Age Gender Race Occupation  Real Estate  Personal Estate Birthplace Father Foreign Born? Mother Foreign Born Married in 1870 Month Attended School Cannot read Cannot Write COMMENTS
Toledo Ward 1 1 Haynes, Mary W. 25 F Black Domestic Servant Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 2 Jones, Della 19 F Mullatto Domestic Servant
Toledo Ward 1 3 Bowen/Rowen, Andrew 30 M Black Domestic Servant Virginia X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Bailey/Railey, George W. 17 M Black Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Charles 48 M Black Teaming Canada X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Charles A. 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Elizabeth 38 F Black Keeping House Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Henry A. 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 5 Garrett, Charlotte 59 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 5 Garrett, Joseph 58 M Mullatto Whitewasher Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Elvia 8 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, George 37 M Mullatto Photographer  $         3,000.00  $              400.00 Georgia
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, George W. 0.75 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Mary 27 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Mary K. 5 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Otis G. 7 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, Eliza 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, Ellen 24 F Mullatto Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, John 5 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, John H 39 M Mullatto Barber  $         1,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Alice 2 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Minister of Warren AME Church mentioned in church history (www.warren-ame.org/church-history/)
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Elizabeth 15 F Mullatto At-Home Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Ella 4 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Ellen 40 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Hiram 40 M Mullatto Drayman  $              200.00 Kentucky X X Enumerated in mullatto household of George Mason – Farmer
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Mary 19 F Mullatto At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Newton 14 M Mullatto At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Squire 17 M Mullatto Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, William W. 6 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Ross, William 30 M Mullatto Blacksmith Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 9 Curtis, Mary 18 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio X
Toledo Ward 1 10 Butler, Anna 17 F Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 1 10 Riley, Mary 14 F Mullatto At-Home Missouri
Toledo Ward 1 10 Robison, Mary 31 F Mullatto At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Benjamin 76 M Mullatto Blacksmith Maryland
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Louis 18 M Mullatto Barber Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Lucinda 22 F Mullatto At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Sarah 51 F Mullatto Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 11 Miles, Emily 28 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 11 Parott/Parett, Mary 50 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Alice 14 F Black At-Home Tennessee X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Betsey 49 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Henry 51 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Julia 18 F Black At-Home Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Maggie 16 F Black At-Home Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Wesley 12 M Black At-Home Tennessee X Enumerated in white household of Emily Birdwell – House Keeper
Toledo Ward 1 13 Gibson, Joshua 22 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X Enumberated in white household of David Smith -lumber dealer
Toledo Ward 1 14 Blannon, Andrew 24 M Black Domestic Servant Virginia Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 1 15 Coup, Henry 34 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 2 16 Johnson, Edward 40 M Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 16 Morrison, George 30 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 17 Lynn, Henry 50 M Black Cooper Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 17 Lynn, Mary 49 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 2 17 Thomas, Mary 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 2 18 Pendleton, Jordan 14 M Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 18 Pendleton, Vina 36 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Henry 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Henry 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Jane 30 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Martha J. 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 20 Hargoes, James M. 30 M Black Laborer Georgia X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 20 Hargoes, Martha 27 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Angeline 33 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Edward 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Frank 9 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 21 Stuart, John 14 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 22 Henry, Jenny 27 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 22 Henry, Thomas P. 37 M Black Barber Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 23 Douglas, Eliza 38 F Black Keeping House District of Columbia Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 2 23 Douglas, Henry 42 M Black Cook Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 24 Parker, Anna 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated in white household of Alonzo Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 2 24 Parker, Frank 16 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Anna 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Henrietta 6 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Victoria 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, William 32 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 26 Price, Mary 19 F Black Servant Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 27 Davis, Hatt 45 M Black Laborer Tennessee Enumerated in white household of Lacken – Farmer
Toledo Ward 2 27 Duma, Annie 21 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 27 Duma, Jennie 24 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 27 Dunning, Frank 45 M Black Laborer Georgia
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), David 15 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Mary 1 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Mary 35 F White Keeping House Ireland X X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Nancy 10 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Thomas 5 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Thomas 40 M Black Rail Road Porter Virginia Enumberated in white household of Cromwell Lloyd -merchant
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), William 18 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Albert 11 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Harry 16 M Black Servant Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Lucy 18 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 30 Newton, Calvin 45 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 30 Newton, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated with black household of Samuel Franklin – Barber
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, Adaline 21 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated with black household of Samuel Franklin – Barber
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, Ed 25 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, George 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, James 16 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, John 38 M White Laborer Germany X X
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, Mary 37 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Arthur 48 M Black Clerk North Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Elias 7 M Black At-Home Wisconsin X
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Isabella 10 F Black At-Home Michigan X
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Lavinia 26 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Alonzo 4 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in white household of Francis Granger – Farmer
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Cora 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Eliza 29 F Black Keeping House Delaware
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Stella 7 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Adelia 10 F Mullatto At-Home Canada X
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Edward 38 M Mullatto Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Mary 45 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 2 36 Davis, Rhoda 39 F Black Servant North Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Albert 16 M Black At-Home Canada Enumerated in white household of PV Brown – Agent
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Isabella 22 F Black At-Home New York
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, John 18 M Black At-Home Michigan
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Sarah 36 F Black Keeping House Maryland Enumerated in white household of Merrill – Justice of the Peace
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, William 36 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 38 Hughes, Malina 40 F Black Keeping House Alabama Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 39 Wilson, Emma 50 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated in whit household of Sophia Benson
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, Francis 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated in white household of Ellen Hunter
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, James 30 F Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, Samuel 3 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 41 Brown, John 40 M Black Barber South Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 41 Brown, Julia 28 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 42 Harris, Henry 25 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 42 Harris, Levinia 22 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Adam 6 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Adam 40 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Anna 45 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Ellen 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Kattie 14 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Susan 9 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 44 Blackburn, Charlotte 38 F Black Keeping House Conneticut
Toledo Ward 2 44 Blackburn, George 40 M Black Cook Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Rachel 65 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Sebastian 60 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Willie 19 M Mullatto Laborer Canada
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, John 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, John 40 M Black Barber Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, Lillia 2 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, Matilda 25 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 2 47 Ackley, Lucy 20 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 47 Ackley, Maggie 29 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Caroline 5 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Eliza 20 F Black Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Emma 7 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, John 32 M Black Blacksmith Alabama
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Andy 16 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Ellen 8 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, James 14 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sally 50 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sam 50 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sammy 12 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 50 Jackson, Moses 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Catherine 55 F White Keeping House  $         3,000.00 Germany X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), George 20 M Black Sailor Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Julia 18 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Mary 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 52 Carlisle, Elizabeth 23 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, Lucy 35 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, William 50 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00  $          1,000.00 Indiana
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, Willis 22 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 54 Gray, Mary 26 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 54 Gray, Thomas 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 55 Smith, Matilda 18 F Black Servant Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Abrahm 39 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Annie 26 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Gerlene 3 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Thomas 16 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 57 Thompson, Hiram 18 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Catherine 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Eliza B 22 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Francis 8 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, J.C. 57 M Black Barber  $         2,000.00 Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Louisa 17 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 59 Pendleton, Lavinia 20 F Black Domestic Servant Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, Frances 23 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, James R 23 M Mullatto Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, Samuel 0.666666667 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio Oct
Toledo Ward 3 61 Wilson, Emily 50 F Mullatto Keeping House  $         1,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Mary 51 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Willis 20 M Black Barber Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Wilson 52 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 63 Green, Susan 10 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 64 Davis, Nancy 22 F Black Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 65 Johnson, Elizabeth 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 65 Johnson, Mary E 4 F Black At-Home Canada
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Addie 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, John 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, John 30 M Black Physician Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Etta 6 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Sarah 29 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Thomas 28 M Mullatto Cook New York
Toledo Ward 3 67 Smith, Carrie 19 F White Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Ada 15 F Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Carter 58 M Mullatto Cook Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Jessy 9 M Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Lucinda 38 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Willie 6 M Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Robinson, Braxton 94 M Black Boarder Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 69 Fearing, Sarah 42 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 69 Fearing, Wm. L 49 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 70 Day, Florence 12 F Black At School Canada X
Toledo Ward 3 70 Day, Lucy S. 35 F Black Teacher Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Charles 12 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Della 10 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Harvey 14 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, James 39 M Mullatto Barber Ohio Enumberated in white household of Robert Smith
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Lilly 3 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Lilly 32 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Mary 5 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Netta 0.166666667 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Robert 8 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 72 Dooms, John 8 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 72 Dooms, Margarett 30 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 73 Logan, John 35 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 74 Slater, Samuel 25 M Black Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, David H 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, Ellent 32 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, Wm 42 M Black Plasterer  $         3,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 75 Harris, Samuel 24 M Black Laborer Canada
Toledo Ward 3 75 Johnson, Marlins 25 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 76 Francis E 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, George 32 M Black Laborer Massachuesetts
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, George H 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, Mary E 20 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 77 Anderson, Nelson 45 F Black Boarder Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Annie 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Charles 9 M Black Scholar Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Eliza 29 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Ellen 7 F Black Scholar Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Isaac 51 M Black Laborer Missouri Enumerated in white household of Emily Birdwell – House Keeper
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Julia 0.166666667 F Black At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Mary 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 79 Jones, Louisa 19 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 79 Speed, Eliza 20 F Black Hair Dresser Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ovals, Lizzie 38 F Black Servant Oiho
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Charles P 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Hester 13 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, John 9 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Julia 15 F Black At-Home Onio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Madilta 34 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Mary 17 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Sam 40 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 81 Chen, James 52 M Black Roofer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Ann 16 F Black Scholar Michigan Enumerated with mullatto household of Thomas Jones – Barber
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Ellen 21 F Black At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Julia 19 F Black At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Mary 40 F Black Servant Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, May 55 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 83 Walbridge, Mary 20 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Aaron 10 M Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Ardilda 16 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Jane 20 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Edward 15 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Eva 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Frederick 7 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Joseph 35 M Black Hotel Waiter New York
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Nettie 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, William 10 M Black At-Home Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Adaliza 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, John 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Joseph 45 M Black Physician Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Mary 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in black household of Wm. Getrell – Plasterer
Toledo Ward 3 87 Cowan, William 22 M Black Servant Pennsylvania Enumerated in white household of Henry H Warren – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 88 Ward, Mary 45 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 89 Ward, Julia 13 F Black Servant Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 3 90 Humphy, Josie 18 F Black Servant Tennessee
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Albert 7 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Ida E 9 F Mullatto At-Home Canada X
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, John E 39 M Mullatto Tailor South Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Manda 4 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Mary 35 F Mullatto Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Myrtle 0.666666667 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Oct Enumerated with black household of Westley Miles – Carpenter
Toledo Ward 3 92 Smith, George 22 M Black In Jail Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 93 Knox, Mary 20 F Black In Jail Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 94 Moore, David 25 M Black In Jail Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 95 Washington, Jno 28 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 96 Washington, Edward 20 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 96 Washington, Mary E 22 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 97 Johnson, Ardella 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 97 Johnson, Henry 30 m Black White Washer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Catharine 30 F Black Keeping House Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Charles A. 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, John W 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Mary E 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Thomas 38 M Black Brick Mason Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Thomas T 0.416666667 M Black At-Home Ohio Jan
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, William E 7 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 99 Toney, Joe 28 M Black Grocer  $         2,000.00  $          1,000.00 Georgia
Toledo Ward 3 100 Benson, Henry 40 M Black Laborer Georgia
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wight, Frederick 35 M Black Laborer Arkansas
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wright, Lucy 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wright, Mary 23 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 3 102 Ackley, Gustavus 22 M Black Laborer New York
Toledo Ward 3 102 Adams, Peter 40 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Adams, Sarah E 47 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 102 Handy, Edward 51 M Black Laborer Delawae
Toledo Ward 3 102 Hossieos, George 24 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 102 Lwson, Emma 16 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Wearing, William 35 M Black Minister Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Williams, Conel 35 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 102 Young, Daniel 26 M Black Brick Mason Delawae
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, Betty E 3 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, John W 13 M Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, John W 29 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania Enumberated in white household of Rob Titus
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, Martha 22 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 104 Walker, Charles 40 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 104 Walker, Eliza 35 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Ellen 50 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Emily 12 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Maria 17 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Augustus 1 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Eli 8 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Mary 31 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Roswell 5 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Thomas 9 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Wiley M. 40 M Mullatto Cook at Hotel  $         1,000.00 North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 107 Walker, Hattie 20 F Black Seamstress Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 107 Walker, Lottie 50 F Black Seamstress Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Dennis 8 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in black household of Stephen Wood – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Garlin 0.166666667 M Black At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Jacob 29 M Black Laborer  $         1,500.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Laurie 26 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, George 24 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, Sarah 22 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, Theodore 1 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 110 Price, James 27 M Black Carpenter  $         2,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 110 Price, Martha 19 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 111 Chase, Allen W 37 M Black Saloon Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 111 Chase, Eliza 28 F Black Keeping House Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Elizabeth 12 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Fanny 9 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, John 3 M Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Mary 1 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Sarah 29 F Black Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Thomas 7 M Black At-Home Canada X X Enumerated in white household of Wm Haskins – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Wm 35 M Black Laborer  $         3,000.00 Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 113 Arnold, John 18 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 113 Pressey, Thomas 15 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 114 Washington, George 18 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 115 Tate, Harry 28 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Hayes, Anna 16 F Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in white household of Henry Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, Annette M 18 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, Elizabeth 49 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, William 50 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 116 Van Brunt, Eddy 15 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 117 Hafler, George R 24 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 117 Highwarden, Jacob 25 M Black Barber Canada
Toledo Ward 3 117 Smith, Wilmot 22 M Black Barber New York
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, Jesse 40 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, Mary 35 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, simon 18 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 119 Rue, Thomas J 30 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 120 Alexander, R. 19 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Anna 1 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Charles 4 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Edward 35 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Minervy 19 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 123 Ward, Sam 40 M Black 1st Cook Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 124 West, William 39 M Black Hotel Porter Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 125 Delaney, Thomas 34 M Black Yard Man Ohoi
Toledo Ward 4 126 Ball, Wm 53 M Black Cook Ohio Lived in white household of Jessy Simon – Restaurant Keeper
Toledo Ward 4 127 Hall, JJ 35 M Black Porter Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 4 128 Grandy, Iser 28 M Black Porter Ohio Enumberated in white household of Henry burch – Farmer
Toledo Ward 4 129 Johnson, Carolina 40 F Black Domestic Servant New York
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Charles 9 M Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Henrietta 43 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Wm 23 M Black Saloon Keeper  $              500.00 North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 130 Highwarden, J. 34 M Black Laborer  ` Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 130 Jackson, John 31 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 130 Johnson, Paul 40 M Black White Washer Alabama
Toledo Ward 4 130 McCown, H. 26 M Black Mill Fireman Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 130 Sly, Bella 24 F Black Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 130 St. Clair, John 38 M Black Laborer South Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 130 Stewart, H 33 M Black Sailor Canada Enumerated in white household of Irwin O Brown – Farmer
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Fred 14 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Hatty 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Jessy 9 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, John 7 M Mullatto Ohio Enumerated in black household of Lewis Thomas – Merchant
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Sarah 36 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Virginia 11 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, W. H 50 M Black Cook at Hotel Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Wallace 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 132 Hart, Julia 69 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 133 Veerman, Carolina 30 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 4 133 Veerman, John 10 M Black X
Toledo Ward 4 134 Jenkins, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 4 134 Jenkins, Robert 46 M Black White Washer  $              700.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Arnett, Bingman 32 M Black Minister Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 4 135 Highwater, Jack 36 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Alice 13 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Hatty 65 F Black Maryland
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Helen 14 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Henrietta 10 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Mary 22 F Black Dress Maker Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Varry 21 F Black Dress Maker Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, William 16 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Wm. 22 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Smith, Willworth 22 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 135 Vina, Charles 23 M Black Engineer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Gusta 9 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Hatty 20 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Mary 47 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Victoria 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Jones, Virginia 38 F Black Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 137 Alexander, Robert 39 M Black Barber Maryland
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Abraham 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, D. R. 44 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, John 14 M Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Lewis 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Margaret 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Robert 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Tanner, Lizzie 19 F White Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 138 Smith, Mary 12 F Black Dress Maker Tennessee
Toledo Ward 4 139 Joyner, James 20 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Charlotte 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Lewis 33 M Black Merchant North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Lewis 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Mary 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Rosa 6 F Black Ohio Enumerated in white householdWm Whitney – music instrument dealer  (look up Whitney high school)
Toledo Ward 4 140 Laws, Mary 17 F Black Domestic Servant Alabama
Toledo Ward 4 140 Montgomery, Eddy 40 M White Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 140 Tildon, Jenny 40 F Black Delaware
Toledo Ward 4 140 Tildon, John 40 M Black Restaurant  $         4,000.00  $          2,000.00 Delaware
Toledo Ward 4 141 Anderson, Ann 4 F Black Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 141 Anderson, John 23 M Black Cook & Eating at Hotel Tennessee
Toledo Ward 4 141 Andeson, Lizzie 27 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated in black household of Marshall Peters – Laborer
Toledo Ward 4 142 Brown, Ann 38 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 142 Brown, James 41 M Black Steward at Hotel Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 143 Jones, James 49 M Black Yard Man Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 144 Van Brunt, T 40 M Black Hotel Waiter Missouri
Toledo Ward 5 145 Williams, Simon 42 M Black Yard Man Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 146 Brice, Sam 26 M Black Hotel Porter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 147 Price, Jery 30 M Black Hotel Porter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 148 Jones, John 17 M Black Bell Boy Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 149 Arnold, Albert 16 M Black Bell Boy Ohio Enumerated in Lucas County Infirmary *
Toledo Ward 5 150 Tillon, John 58 M Black Keeps Restaurant  $         8,000.00  $          1,000.00 Delaware X X Enumerated in Lucas County Infirmary *
Toledo Ward 5 150 Tillon, Sarah 40 F Black House Keeper Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 5 151 Brown, Mary 16 F Mullatto Cook Delaware
Toledo Ward 5 152 Brown, Calvin 18 M Black Waiter at Hotel Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 153 Miller, James 16 M Black Works on Tug Boat Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 5 154 Harris, Isaac 42 M Black Hotel Cook South Carolina
Toledo Ward 5 155 Davis, Manus 48 M Black Hotel Cook Florida
Toledo Ward 5 156 Douglas, Lewis 20 M Black Hotel Running Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 157 Cowel, John 22 M Black Omnibus Driver Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 158 Brown, James 25 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 159 Williams, Ben 25 M Black Hotel Waiter New York
Toledo Ward 5 160 Means, James 22 M Mullatto Hotel Waiter Virginia
Toledo Ward 5 161 Cannon, John 26 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 162 Motten, William 20 M Black Hotel Waiter Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 163 Smith, Thos. 22 M Black Hotel Waiter Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 164 Hartnell, James 21 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 165 Cox, Arthur 22 M Mullatto Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 166 Schaffer, Harry 20 M Mullatto Bell Boy Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 167 Whitfred, John 21 M Black Barber Ohio Enumerated in white household of James McCabe – Weaver
Toledo Ward 5 168 Washington, Ed 22 M Black Barber Ohio Enumerated with white household of Winslow Isherwood – Man of Tobacco
Toledo Ward 5 169 Bolden, Levy 22 M Black Hotel Porter Alabama
Toledo Ward 5 170 Fergeson(?), Edward 15 M Black Works in Hotel Canada Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 5 170 Fergeson(?), Susan 22 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Charly 9 M Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Edward 68 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Lenice 8 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Nancy 6 F Black Canada
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Olivia 14 F Black Canada X Enumerated in white household of Wm Hamon – Laborer
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Susan 11 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Eveline 51 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Henry 50 M Black Brick Mason  $            800.00 Indiana
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Stony 17 M Black Tailor Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Frank 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Jerry 27 M Mullatto Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Maggie 25 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Anna 8 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Emory 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Georgianna 29 F Black Keeping House Mississippi
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Jane 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, John N 37 M Black Clergyman  $         3,000.00  $              150.00 Virginia Enumerated in black household of John Tildon – restauranteur
Toledo Ward 7 174 Cramer, Susan 50 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X x Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 7 174 Cramer, William 50 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X Enumerated in white household of Henry Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 7 174 Walker, William 30 M Black White Washer Kentucky X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 7 175 Craig, Ambrose 83 M Black At-Home North Carolina
Toledo Ward 7 175 Craig, Missouri 22 F Black Seamstress Canada
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Elvira 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Fanny 17 F Black At-Home Indiana X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Mary 13 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Olivia 35 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Samuel W 38 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Albert 7 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, George 25 M Black Vessel Cook Indiana X X
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, George 4 M Black Ohio Enumerated in white household of Mary Calder – Keeping House
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Levi 10 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Samuel 12 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Susan 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rodes, Minnie 1 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Horace 9 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Mary 28 F Mullatto Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Thomas 32 M Mullatto Carpenter  $         1,000.00  $              150.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macy, Elenora 3 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Perrin, Virginia 18 F Mullatto At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 178 Ward, Anna 35 F Black At-Home
Toledo Ward 7 178 Washington, George 40 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 178 Washington, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 179 McCoul, Mary 14 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Henry 29 M Black Laborer  $         1,000.00 Virginia X X Enumerated in black household of Sam Ward – Cook
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, James 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Martha 26 F Black Keeping House Alabama X X
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Wm 0.25 M Black Ohio May Enumerated in white household of Wm Hamon – Laborer
Toledo Ward 7 181 Nelson, Caroline 45 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 181 Nelson, John 48 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 182 Mitcherson, Ella F 26 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Toledo Ward 7 182 Mitcherson, Smith 27 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 7 183 Getsel, David 47 M Black Plasterer  $         1,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 183 Getsel, Johanna 34 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Alice 9 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Edward 70 M Mullatto Brick Mason  $         1,800.00 Virginia Enumerated with mullatto household of Thomas Macey – Carpenter
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Martha 40 F Mullatto Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Martha 11 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Carey 2 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), John 36 M Black White Washer  $              400.00 Arkansas
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), John 0.75 M Black Ohio Sept
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Lizzie 24 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Lizzie 6 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Minnie 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Peachy 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Wm 34 M Black Brick Layer  $            600.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Wm 0.5 M Black Ohio Feb
Toledo Ward 8 187 Miles, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 187 Miles, Wm M 30 M Black Plasterer  $              200.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Andrew 12 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Entorah 20 F Black Seamstress Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, George 0.833333333 M Black Ohio July
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Louisa 45 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, M S 16 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Madison 47 M Black Plasterer  $            800.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Thomas 15 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Wm 18 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Alvey 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Ellen 12 F Black Alabama X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Frank 8 M Black Alabama X
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Laura 13 F Black Alabama X Enumerated in white household of George Watson
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Westley 42 m Black Carpenter  $            800.00 Kentucky Enumerated in white household of C.W. Ferguson – Farmer
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, James 35 M Black Laborer New Jersey
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, Jenny 3 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Andy 40 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Robert 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Susan 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 192 Cole, Anna 28 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 8 192 Cole, John 36 M Black Laborer  $            500.00 Canada
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Bella 22 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Louisa 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Maggie 6 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Richard 2 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Robert 27 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Helen 10 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, J.C. 57 M Black Barber Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Kate A 15 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Louisa 17 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, Ann 3 F Mullatto Ohio Enumerated in black household of Carter Ferguson – Cook
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, John 40 M Mullatto Saloon Keeper  $         1,800.00  $              250.00 New York Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, Julia 33 F Mullatto Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Lizzie 27 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Sarah 7 F Black Michigan X
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Vernal 30 M Black Hotel Waiter  $            600.00 Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Albert 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Henry 31 M Black Laborer New York
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Sarah 29 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ann 46 F Black Keeping House Maryland
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ellen 15 F Black Maryland Enumerated in mullatto household of Hiram Lee – Drayman
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ester 0.416666667 F Black Ohio Jan Enumerated in white household of George Reynolds – Proprietor of Flour Mill (Reynolds Rd??)
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Henry 25 M Black Laborer Maryland Enumerated with lawyer Frank Hurd
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Mark 17 M Black Laborer Maryland
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Aussy 18 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Ellen 14 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, George 19 M Black Teamster Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Wm 10 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Turner, James 40 M Black Laborer Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 199 Turner, Rachel 45 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 200 Coleman, Amy 40 F Black Keeping House South Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 200 Coleman, James 42 M Black Laborer South Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Bella 18 F Black Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Flemming 60 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Sarah 53 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 201 Johnson, Sam 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky Enumerated in white household of  W.W. Brainard – lumber merchant
Toledo Ward 8 201 Welles, Sophia 16 F Black Domestic Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, C.E. 38 F Black Keeping House New Jersey
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, G.B. 18 M Black Laborer New York Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, Henry M 16 M Black Horsler Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, J.B. 44 M Black Hotel Waiter  $              200.00 New York
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, John T 14 M Black Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, Wm S. 11 M Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 8 203 Rosedale(?), Joseph 12 M Black Delaware
Toledo Ward 8 203 Rosedale(?), Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Delaware
Toledo Ward 8 204 Hall, Toasey 19 M Black Domestic Servant Kentucky Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Ann 21 F Mullatto Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Ellen 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Sam 6 M Mullatto Ohio Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Thomas 30 M Mullatto Barber  $              200.00 North Carolina Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Walter 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Adams 204 Marshall, Ann 10 F Mullatto New York
Adams 204 Marshall, James 6 M Mullatto New York
Adams 205 Fields, Henry 15 M Mullatto Kentucky
Adams 205 Fields, John 4 M Mullatto Ohio Twin
Adams 205 Fields, Mary 29 F Mullatto Keeping House Indiana
Adams 205 Fields, Mary 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Adams 205 Fields, Wm. 40 M Mullatto Farmer  $          1,000.00 Kentucky
Adams 206 Jones, John 30 M Black Laborer Massachuesetts
Adams 207 Cunningham, Wm 18 M Black Horsler Kentucky
Adams 208 Snotwon, Arebelle 16 F Black Not Noted
Adams 208 Snotwon, Lincoln 7 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snotwon, Minerva 14 F Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, G. Grant 5 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, George 10 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, Henry 10 M Black Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Jane 38 F Black Keeping House Not Noted Enumberated in black household of Edward Points – laborer
Adams 208 Snowton, Joe 40 M Black Farmer  $         4,600.00  $          1,200.00 Not Noted Mentioned as victim in 1862 race riot in Toledo
Adams 208 Snowton, John 20 M Black Laborer Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Joseph 18 M Black Laborer Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Royal 7 M Black Not Noted
Manhatten 209 Norris, Jesse 44 M Black Plasterer Virginia X X
Manhatten 209 Norris, Rebecca 42 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X
Manhatten 210 Cunningham, Edward 50 M Black Farmer  $              140.00 Virginia X X
Manhatten 210 Cunningham, Mary 80 F Black Keeping House Virginia X
Manhatten 211 Cromwell, Hannah 52 F Black Keeping House Canada X X Enumerated with John G Shattuck auctuioneer
Manhatten 211 Cromwell, Thomas 55 M Black Farmer Ohio
Manhatten 212 Johnson, Albert 35 M Mullatto Farm Hand Virginia
Manhatten 213 Williams, Edward 50 M Black Farmer  $         1,500.00  $              100.00 Kentucky X X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Emelie 39 F Black Keeping House Ohio X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Lincoln 8 M Black At-Home Michigan
Manhatten 213 Williams, Sarah 18 F Black At-Home Indiana X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Virginia 10 F Black At-Home Michigan
Manhatten 214 Hall, Anthony 34 M Mullatto Laborer Maryland
Manhatten 214 Hall, Catharine 32 F Mullatto Keeping House New York
Manhatten 214 Hall, Claude H 2 M Mullatto New York
Manhatten 214 Hall, Geoge F 0.25 M Mullatto Ohio Feb
Manhatten 215 Baker, William 16 M Black At-Home Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Bettie 6 F Black Ohio
Manhatten 215 Mason, George 48 M Black Farmer Virginia X X
Manhatten 215 Mason, Hattie 0.25 F Black Ohio May
Manhatten 215 Mason, Julia 13 F Black At-Home Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Mary 37 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Mary 3 F Black Ohio
Manhatten 216 Flatshaw, Thomas 21 M Black Laborer Maryland Twin
Manhatten 216 Lyons, William 18 M Black Laborer Maryland
Manhatten 216 Peters, David 21 M Black Laborer Virginia X X
Manhatten 216 Peters, Jan 57 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated in white household of John Denny
Manhatten 216 Peters, Lavina 15 F Black At-Home Virginia
Manhatten 216 Peters, Marshall 64 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Virginia X X
Manhatten 216 Peters, Mary 18 F Black At-Home Virginia X Twin
Manhatten 216 Peters, Rose 17 F Black At-Home Virginia X
Manhatten 217 Powers, Elizabeth 45 F Black Keeping House Tennessee X X
Manhatten 217 Powers, John 66 M Black Laborer Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Powers, William 24 M Black Laborer Indiana X X Enumerated at work
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Betsey 18 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania Enumerated at work
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Frances 46 M Black Farmer  $              500.00 Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Frank 16 M Black Sailor Pennsylvania
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Louise 47 F Black Keeping House Maryland X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Margaret 12 F Black At-Home Canada
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Prisilla 79 F Black At-Home Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Richard 19 M Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, William 14 M Black At-Home Canada
Maumee Ward 1 218 Royster, Moses 21 M Black Laborer North Carolina X X
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Elizabeth 27 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, George 26 M Mullatto Laborer Ohio
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Georgiana 3 F Mullatto Ohio Enumerated at work
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Mary E 0.5 F Mullatto Ohio Dec
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, William 10 M Mullatto Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Anna 4 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Della 5 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Eliza 67 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated in white household of G. Walbridge (female)
Monclova 220 Lee, Elizabeth 3 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, George 70 M Black Farm Hand Virginia X X
Monclova 220 Lee, Laura 21 F Black Virginia X
Monclova 220 Lee, Louisa 23 F Black Keeping House Virginia X
Monclova 220 Lee, Mary 21 F Black Virginia X X
Oregon 221 Dent, C. B. 2 F Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, C. E 6 F Black Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, George 10 M Black Kentucky Enumerated with black household of William Cramer – Laborer
Oregon 221 Dent, John 48 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, John 14 M Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, Julia 13 F Black Kentucky
Oregon 221 Dent, L. J. 8 F Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, Minnie 4 F Black Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, S. J. 37 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Springfield 222 Thompson, Clara 4 F Black Ohio
Springfield 222 Thompson, H.H. 28 M Black Farm Laborer  $              400.00 Ohio X
Springfield 222 Thompson, Jan 32 F Black Keeping House Canada
Springfield 222 Thompson, John 4 M Black Ohio
Springfield 223 Thompson, Harriet 19 F Black Keeping House Canada X
Springfield 223 Thompson, Isa A 0.333333333 F Black Ohio Feb
Springfield 223 Thompson, John W 23 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio X
Springfield 224 Doshan, Frank 4 M Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Jan 30 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Springfield 224 Doshan, Jan 7 F Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Paul 2 M Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Robert 55 M Black Farm Laborer Kentucky X X
Swanton 225 Hays, Lewis 5 M Black Michigan Enumerated at work
Swanton 225 Hays, Louisa 32 F Black Keeping House Canada
Swanton 225 Hays, Silas 1 M Black Ohio Enumerated in hotel of John C Ruttlege
Swanton 225 Hays, William 45 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Missouri
Swanton 225 Hays, William Jr. 12 M Black Canada X X
Sylvania 226 Garrison, William H 38 M Black Barber New York
Sylvania 227 Manual, Isaac 1 M Black Michigan X
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Anna 20 F Black Keeping House Canada
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Robert 6 M Black Canada X
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Victoria 2 F Black Michigan X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Anderson 43 M Black Laborer Miss X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Augustus 3 M Black Canada
Sylvania 228 Harper, Corren 11 M Black Canada X X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Henrietta 4 F Black Michigan
Sylvania 228 Harper, James 4 M Black Ohio Enumerated in black household of Ira Hurst – Farmer (wife Elizabeth was said to be his daughter)
Sylvania 228 Harper, Matilda 24 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 228 Harper, Wallace 1 M Black Ohio
Sylvania 229 Nathan, Joseph Jr 32 M Black Works in Stave Factor Pennsylvania
Sylvania 229 Nathan, Joseph Sr 58 M Black Employed in ___  $              100.00 Pennsylvania
Sylvania 230 Wood, Albert H 22 M Black Works in Stave Factor Michigan
Sylvania 230 Wood, Theodore 24 M Black Works in Stave Factor  $            130.00 Michigan Enumerated at work
Sylvania 231 Harris, Thomas 55 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia X X
Sylvania 232 Johnson, Cornelia 13 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Sylvania 232 Johnson, David 53 M Black Farmer  $            400.00 Kentucky
Sylvania 232 Johnson, Delia 34 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 233 Jackson, Henry 20 M Black Farm Laborer Canada
Sylvania 233 Wood, Amanda 55 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Sylvania 233 Wood, Stephen 58 M Black Farmer  $            400.00  $              150.00 New York X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Bentley 8 M Black Ohio X Enumerated at work
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Eleanor 10 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elizabeth 12 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elizabeth 33 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elsie 6 F Black Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ezella 4 F Black Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ira 13 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ira 48 M Black Farmer  $            500.00  $              200.00 Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Nellie 3 F Black Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Nora 0.416666667 F Black Ohio Jan
Sylvania 234 Wheeler, Amos 65 M Black Living with Daughter District of Columbia
Washington 235 Johnson, Iva 36 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Washington 235 Johnson, James A 18 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio X
Washington 235 Johnson, Lewis P 39 M Black Farm Laborer  $            300.00  $              100.00 Vermont Enumerated at work
Washington 235 Johnson, Theresa 8 F Black Ohio
Washington 235 Johnson, Wm W 15 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Washington 236 Griffin, Chas 30 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia
Washington 237 Pyatte, Solomon 22 M Black Farm Laborer South Carolina
Washington 238 Jones, Thomas 19 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia
Washington 239 Jones, Frances 9 F Black Pennsylvania
Washington 239 Jones, Martha 18 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania X X
Washington 239 Jones, Mary 49 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania X
Washington 239 Jones, Nancy 10 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Washington 240 Blackwell, Henry 30 M Black Farm Laborer Tennessee
Washington 240 Griffeth, Charles 28 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio
Washington 241 Osburn, Anderson 48 M Black Farm Laborer  $              100.00 Kentucky
Washington 241 Osburn, Margaret 1 F Black Ohio
Washington 241 Osburn, Rachel 37 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Washington 241 Osburn, Rosanna 9 F Black Arkansas
Washington 241 Osburn, Sarah 12 F Black At-Home Arkansas X
Washington 241 Osburn, Theodore 3 M Black Ohio
Washington 242 Maynes, Alex 24 M Black Gardner  $         9,000.00  $              100.00 Georgia X
Washington 242 Maynes, Emma 24 F Black Keeping House Vermont
Washington 243 Christianson, L. 27 M Black Farm Laborer Tennessee
Washington 244 Cromwell, Wm 20 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio
Waterville 245 McCabe, John 30 M Black Laborer Missouri
Waynesville 246 Curtis, Abraham 59 M Black Kentucky X X
Waynesville 246 Curtis, Eliza 43 F Black Indiana X X
Total Number of Individuals 768
Total Number of Households 246
Number labled “Black” 644
Number labeled “Mullatto” 117
Number labeled “White” 6
Number of Mixed Race Families (white wife) 2
Number of Mixed Race Families (white husband) 1
First Most Popular Surname (Jones) including
one of my Jones families
24
Second Most Popular Surname (Johnson) 17
Numer of individuals who could not read/write 53
Number of individuals in Jail (David Moore, George Smith
and Mary Knox)
3
Number of children who attended school within the year 69
Average Age 24
Average Age of Males 25
Average Age of Females 22
Number of Females 371
Number of Males 397
Age of Oldest Male (Braxton Robinson) 94
Age of Oldest Female (Mary Cunningham) 80
Age of Youngest Male (Garlin Lee) 1 month
Age of Youngest Female (Julia Harris) 1 month
Toledo Residents 604
Sylvania Residents 33
Manhattan (North End) Residents 41
Swanton Residents 5
Monclova Residents 8
Oregon (East Side) Residents 9
Maumee Residents 6
Adams Residents 19
Washington Residents 25
Springfield Residents 12
Waynesville Residents 2
Waterville Residents 1
Value of Real Estate  $   73,430.00
Value of Personal Estates  $   12,440.00
Birthplace of AL 9
Birthplace of AR 4
Birthplace of Canada 48
Birthplace of CT 1
Birthplace of DE 9
Birthplace of DC 2
Birthplace of FL 1
Birthplace of GA 6
Birthplace of Germany 2
Birthplace of IL 4
Birthplace of IN 23
Birthplace of KY 81
Birthplace of LA 3
Birthpalce of MD 18
Birthplace of MA 2
Birthplace of MI 18
Birthplace of MS 2
Birthplace of MO 5
Birthplace of NJ 2
Birthplace of NY 19
Birthplace of NC 22
Birthplace of OH 330
Birthplace of PA 36
Birthplace of SC 11
Birthplace of TN 12
Birthplace of VT 2
Brithplace of VA 69
Birthplace of WI 1
Not noted birthplace 15
Occupation of Barber 32
Occupation of Bellboy 3
Occupation of Blacksmith 3
Occupation of Brick Mason/Layer 5 NOTE:  This was a wealthy demographic with real estate valued at $3200)
Occupation of Carpenter 3 NOTE: This was a wealthy demographic with real estate valued at $6800)
Occupation of Clergy/Minister 3 NOTE:  First pastor of Warren AME church included
Occupation of Cook 19
Occupation of Clerk 1
Occupation of Cooper 1
Occupation of Domestic Servant 39
Occupatoin of Drayman 1
Occupation of Dress Maker 3
Occupation of Engineer 1
Occupation of Farmer 10 NOTE:  This was the wealthiest demographic with real estate valued at $16400
Occupation of Farm Laborer 16
Occupation of Grocer 1
Occupation of Hair Dresser (female) 1
Occupation of Horsler 2
Occupation of Hotel Worker 21
Occupation of Restauranteur 1
Occupation of Laborer 85
Occupation of Physician 2
Occupation of Photographer 1
Occupation of Plasterer 6
Occupation of Porter 2
Occupation of Railroad Porter 1
Occupation of Roofer 1
Occupation of Sailor 3
Occupation of Saloonkeeper 2
Occupation of Seamstress (females) 4
Occupation of Tailor (males) 2
Occupation of Teacher (Lucy Day) 1
Occupation of Teamster 2
Occupation of Vessel Cook 1
Ocupationof White Washer 6
Occupation of Stave Factory Worker 3
Occupation of Tug Boat Laborer 1
Occupation of Yard Man 3

 

Toledo Race Riot of 1862

Transcribing the 1860 Census made me wonder if any of the people that were on that spreadsheet was affected by the race riot that occurred in Toledo in the summer of 1862.

Current events over the past few years have made riots become more heavily featured on news media. Naturally people have intense emotions and reactions to these occurrences. I, many times react in the same way to historical events of the same nature and this one that occurred in Toledo is one that personally effected me, especially after doing research on early black and “colored” citizens of the area.

The Toledo Race Riot of 1862 occurred in the month of July. It started due to a group of dock workers going on strike over wanting an increase in wages. Per the Toledo Blade’s article titled “Lawless Proceedings” published on July 8, 1862, the group of white men worked as “Stevedores” at the “Wabash Freight” company. They wanted an increase in their wages from 12 cents an hour to 15 cents per hour or they were threatening to strike. The supervisors on duty refused to pay the increased wage and the company hired other workers, both black and white to come and work on the docks at 12 cents per hour due to the striking Stevedores. When the striking workers saw this, they made threats to the agents of the company. The supervisors of the company contacted city officials and law enforcement due to the threats and threatening actions of the striking workers.

The mayor and law enforcement came and attempted to get the crowd to leave. The crowd began to have more mob like behavior with more threats and violence. The mob threw sticks, rocks, and bricks at dock worker and especially at the black workers who were employed. The Blade article stated that the mob used the above as “missiles” and that they surrounded the black workers and began physically attacking them. Many of the black men at the docks were beaten and attempted to flee. Most were able to get inside of the warehouse at the docks for protection where the company closed the door. During the melee, three black men were reported to have been injured at the docks, two had their arms broken, and one was stated to have his “head split open.” One of the black workers who was surrounded and being heavily beaten, took out a knife that was in his possession and stabbed one of the white attackers. He slashed two other white men with the knife then ran down the street to try to flee the mob. The white man who was stabbed was injured on his right side just below the lower rib. The injured man was reported to be named FITZGERALD.

Due to the anger over the white men being injured, the mob pursued the black man who stabbed the white men. Along their way they attacked all the black people they saw on the street and “pummeled” them according to the Blade accounts published on July 9th. The mob also attacked the homes of black residents.

As was stated in the post A Brief History of Toledo Public Schools, the City of Toledo was not segregated in earlier eras like it became in the 20th century. Black citizens lived among white citizens and there were no concentrated “negro” areas.

Someone in the mob was aware of a home where an “industrious black woman” lived. She was not named but it was stated that she lived in a house at the “edge of the city” near the canal. She was a widow and took in clothes and linen to wash as a business. The mob went to this woman’s house, and destroyed her house. The article in the Blade stated that they “demolished” her home and pulled apart placards and “threw them in the canal.” They then sought to kill her and her children. The woman was not at home as she had been working at the home of a white female citizen. The mob learned that the black woman’s children were being watched by her “German neighbors” and they attempted to get the children from the German neighbors. Word got to the neighbors in time where they were able to “steal the children away” with “one under each arm.” The mob attacked the home of the German family and destroyed much of their home and furnishings.

The mob continued to ransack the homes of all of the other known black citizens in the city at this time. They came to the home of William H. MERRITT (mentioned in the article Early Black Toledoans – William H. Merritt). Mr. MERRITT was the wealthiest black man in Toledo and lived at the corner of Jefferson and Erie Streets. One of his neighbors notified city and law enforcement officials who were trying to calm the mobs and they dispatched Reverend F.M BOFF a Catholic minister to the scene. He persuaded the mob not to destroy the home of Mr. MERRITT, the mob instead went across the street, on Erie Street and broke all of the windows out of the home of Benjamin TALBOT who was a negro blacksmith listed on the 1860 Census. The mob then entered Mr. TALBOT’s home and ransacked the inside of his home and destroyed all of his furnishings.

The mob continued their journey up through the Uptown district of Toledo. They attacked all the black people they saw on the street, including a black man who was walking down Monroe Street who was “severely beaten.” The mob also chased a black man who sought refuge at the home of a white attorney by the name of BASSETT who also called for city authorities and Reverend BOFF to come and talk down the crowd. The black man was safely able to escape the mob due to Mr. BASSETT’s assistance. Another black man was “pummeled” at 11th Street and Lafayette.

The city authorities finally were able to arrest over 20 individuals for rioting and assault. Articles regarding the court proceedings stated that the mob rioters were primarily Irishmen. One, by the name of Francis GAVIN was stated to have been the “ring leader” of the mob. The Blade published that Mr. GAVIN was new to the Toledo area and had solidified himself a “negative introduction” to the city. Other men named as perpetuators of mob violence were Patrick EARLY also described as a ring leader, James SHANNON, John HOOPER, James SMYLEY, Thomas TIERNAN, and James ROSS.

The city punished these men and others with what was considered a “severe” sentence of 30 days hard labor and a fine of $50 each.

Other newspaper accounts published accounts of the race riot that occurred in Toledo that day and stated that the rioters attacked black workers because companies were hiring negros over whites in Toledo.  Also that they felt they should not be paid the same wages as negros.  In a response to one of these publications, the Toledo Blade refuted those accounts of events.  The Blade published that whites and “colored” citizens had always worked side by side at the stocks and in various industries.  Also that due to the ongoing war, many white men had left Toledo to join the Army.  This resulted in a lack of available white men to be employed by area industries and so any man and especially any white man who was available to work would be able to easily find employment at a decent wage.