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1860 Census Free People of Color in Toledo

I’ve been working on getting the data from the 1860 Census uploaded onto the site and it is listed below.  In contrast to the previous census transcriptions posted (1850 Census of Toledo and 1840 Census of Toledo‘s free person of color population) There were 270 individuals listed versus only 37 in 1840 and 121 in 1850.

There were some familiar surnames including FIELDS, DEASE, NICKLOS/NICKLAS, and WILLIAMS that were on previous census records.  Also even one of my own ancestor’s surnames – WHITFIELD.  Unfortunately a man by the name of John WHITFIELD was the only black person in jail when the 1860 census was taken!!  I’ll have to visit the library to see if they have any information on early jails and court records that have indexes to see if there is any information about what happened to him.

Some interesting information found in the 1860 is as follows:


The oldest black resident in Toledo was listed as Essa Brown who stated she was 116 years old!  I don’t know if I believe this but the record stated that she was born in Virginia. She lived in the Harris household, which was headed by Peter Harris and what looks to be his wife Maria.  There was another black resident with the surname BROWN  on the census  – JW BROWN.  He did not live in the same household and I am not certain if they were related.  Perusing the early death records of the City of Toledo showed that a black female child by the name of Minerva BROWN died in 1859 at the age of 12.  It is uncertain if she is related to either JW BROWN or Essa BROWN.


An eight year old black child named William HINDERS(or HINDERSON) was enumerated in the household of Morrison R. WAITE, a prominent Toledo resident and who Waite High School is named after.  WAITE became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1874.

William HINDERS/HINDERSON was listed as a “servant” in the household and he did not attend school in 1860.


There were six households who owned real estate with a total value of $6,800.00.  Those persons were:

  • Robert NICKLOS who was on the previous Census records for Toledo from 1840 and 1850. He was listed as a Carpenter in 1860 and was born in New York.   He owned real estate valued at $1500 and a personal estate value of $300
  • George W TUCKER who was listed as a Barber from Kentucky owned real state valued at $300 with a personal estate valued at $250.
  • Alford COALMAN/COLEMAN who was listed as a Laborer from Virginia owned real estate valued at $200. Records reviewed on FamilySearch.Org showed a an “Alfred COLEMAN” died in Toledo on July 15, 1867 of Consumption.  He was listed as black with the occupation of “Washer.” Alford COALMAN/COLEMAN was headed a household of 4 other free persons, including a white woman, seemingly his wife Catherine COALMAN/COLEMAN who was born in Germany and 3 “mullatto” children.
  • William H MERRILL/MERRITT who lived in Sylvania and had the highest valued property at $3,500 in Sylvania. He was also listed as a Barber and was from Virginia.  He also had a personal estate of $500.  There was an entry on FamilySearch.Org of a Wm A. MERRETT who died on December 9, 1879 at the age of 59 years.  His death record stated he was born in Virginia in 1820.  He was married and “colored” with the occupation of Barber.  (Citation:  “Ohio, County Death Records, 1840-2001,” database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:F6X1-5YF : 13 December 2014), Wm. A. Merrett, 09 Dec 1879; citing Death, Toledo, Lucas, Ohio, United States, source ID P. 296-297, County courthouses, Ohio; FHL microfilm 909,032.).  William H. MERRITT lived in Toledo with a woman, seemingly is wife Elizabeth MERRITT.
  • Oliver JACOBS was owned real estate worth $300 and was from Indiana
  • John JACKSON was a Porter from Virginia who owned property valued at $1000.


There were 22 children who were marked as having attended school in Toledo in the year of 1860.  Only 3 black children had attended school in 1850.  Per a previous entry regarding A Brief History of Toledo Public Schools, starting in 1853 all “colored” children were allowed to enter the public school system in segregated facilities.  In 1858 the city built a new school for black children and information from the Toledo Public School system showed that 31 children attended school in 1858 in that facility.  Some of the children in 1860 may not have been marked as having attended school or some may have left the system by 1860.  The children who attended school based on the 1860 Census were:

  • Charlotte L. NICKLOS age 9
  • Alphonse TUCKER age 16
  • Capar/Caspar TUCKER age 14
  • Carline FRANKLIN age 11
  • William FRANKLIN age 8
  • ___(unreadable) B. GREEN a female aged 13
  • Lerrisa(?) GREEN age 7
  • Edward WALKER age 15
  • George COALMAN/COLEMAN age 9
  • Julia COALMAN/COLEMAN age 7
  • Mary DENT age 10
  • William H. NATHAN age 14
  • Cornelius MARONY age 10
  • Sidney RICKEN age 8
  • George STEVENS age 10
  • Georgianna STEVENS age 8
  • David TABBOT age 8
  • Lusinda TABBOT age 12
  • John LOCK age 12
  • Albertson PARKS age 11
  • Mary E. EDWARDS age 9
  • Ellen LEWIS age 11

According to the 1860 Census 17 adult residents could not read or write out of 179 adults older than 15 years of age, so around 10% of the adult population were illiterate.

UPDATE:  Recently I have been doing some additional research into the JONES family headed by John W. JONES and Mary ARMSTRONG JONES.  One of their daughters Martha JONES married a man by the name of John DENT.  John DENT was the child of J. DENT and Sarah DENT shown on the 1860 Census below.

Below is a copy of the spreadsheet I created:

Residing In: Family# Name Age Gender Race Occupation  Value of RE  Value of PE Birthplace Attended school within the year Peron over 20 who cannot read/write Deaf,dumb, blind, insane idiotic, pauper or convict COMMENTS
Manhattan 1 Nicklos, Charlotte L. 9 F Mullatto Ohio Yes
Toledo 1 Nicklos, Electra 32 F Mullatto Michigan
Toledo 1 Nicklos, Florence 2 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 1 Nicklos, Isabelle 5 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 1 Nicklos, Robert 49 M Mullatto Carpenter  $      1,500.00  $       300.00 New York
Toledo 2 Fields, Anna (Mona) 13 F Black Ohio
Toledo 2 Fields, Harvey 48 M Black Labor  $                   –  $                – Canada
Toledo 2 Fields, Jane 43 F Black Washing  $                   –  $                – Canada
Toledo 2 Fields, John 11 M Black Ohio
Toledo 2 Fields, Lucious 18 M Black Labor Canada
Toledo 2 Fields, Mary 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo 2 Fields, Robert 21 M Black Teamster Canada
Toledo 2 Fields, William 14 M Black Canada
Toledo 3 Talbert, Benjamin F 19 M Black Barber Indiana
Toledo 4 Schuler, Charles 36 M White Laborer  $                   –  $                – Germany Cannot read/write Married to Mullatto woman
Toledo 4 Schuler, Elaina 40 F Mullatto North Carolina
Toledo 5 Hinders(Henderson), William 8 M Mullatto Ohio Lived in household of MR Waite, looks to be a servant boy.  Did not attend school
Toledo 6 Tucker, Alpheus(Alphonse) W. 16 M Mullatto Michigan Yes
Toledo 6 Tucker, Capar (Caspar) M. 14 M Mullatto Michigan Yes
Toledo 6 Tucker, George W. 48 M Mullatto Barber  $         300.00  $       250.00 Kentucky
Toledo 6 Tucker, Georgetta A. 18 F Mullatto Michigan
Toledo 6 Tucker, Mary W. 23 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 7 Franklin, Carline 11 F Mullatto Indiana Yes
Manhattan 7 Franklin, William 8 M Mullatto Indiana Yes
Toledo 7 Franklin, Amanda 19 F Mullatto Indiana
Toledo 7 Franklin, Ambros(Ambrose) 65 M Mullatto North Carolina Cannot read/write
Toledo 7 Franklin, John A. 22 M Mullatto Barber North Carolina
Toledo 8 Martin, Sara M 25 F Mullatto Canada
Toledo 8 Martin, Thomas 25 M Mullatto Cook New York
Toledo 8 Parker, Frank 5 M Ohio Lived with Martin family
Toledo 9 Green, Ellen 12 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 9 Green, Martha 26 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo 9 Wright, John 27 M Black Porter Ohio
Toledo 10 Harris, Dennis 25 M Black Cook Michigan Lived with Watson Family
Toledo 10 Harris, Harriet 25 F White Germany Lived with Watson Family
Toledo 11 Watson, Henry 40 M Black Waiter Maryland Lived with Harris Family
Toledo 11 Watson, Nancy 38 F Mullatto Michigan Lived with Harris Family
Toledo 12 Wright, Mary 25 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo 12 Wright, Richard 6 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 12 Wright, William 4 Ohio
Toledo 13 Green ____ B. 13 F Mullatto Indiana Yes
Toledo 13 Green, Lerrisa(?) 7 F Mullatto Ohio Yes
Toledo 13 Green, Eliza 25 F Mullatto Indiana
Toledo 13 Green, Jacob C. 49 M White Butcher Maryland
Toledo 13 Green, Linda 6 F Mullatto Ohio
Spencer 14 Liner, James 40 M Black Ship Washand Kentucky Cannot read/write
Toledo 14 Liner, Mary 45 F Black Kentucky Cannot read/write
Toledo 15 Powell, Charles 1 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 15 Powell, Charlott 6 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 15 Powell, Dayton(Layton) 3 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 15 Powell, Henry 5 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 15 Powell, Lawrence 37 M Mullatto Labor North Carolina
Toledo 15 Powell, Mary A. 34 F Mullatto Tennessee
Toledo 16 Walker, Edward 15 M Black Ohio Yes
Toledo 16 Walker, Elias 32 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo 16 Walker, James 20 M Black Waiter Ohio
Toledo 16 Walker, Nancy 28 F Black Misissippi
Toledo 17 Prichard, Julia 14 F Black Ohio Lived with Walker Family (17)
Toledo 18 Coalman(Coleman), George 9 M Mullatto Ohio Yes
Oregon 18 Coalman(Coleman), Julia 7 F Mullatto Ohio Yes
Toledo 18 Coalman(Coleman), Alford 35 M Black Labor  $         200.00 Virginia
Toledo 18 Coalman(Coleman), Catherine 39 F White Washing Germany
Toledo 18 Coalman(Coleman), Mary 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 19 Washington, Lewisa 25 F Mullatto Servant DC
Toledo 20 Nicklos, Edward 33 M Mullatto Buggy Maker New York Two white individuals lived with this family – Ann Frederick (age 20) and Charles Johnson (age 5)
Toledo 20 Nicklos, Elizabeth 27 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 21 Randle, Mary 28 F White Ireland
Toledo 21 Randle, Thomas 28 M Mullatto Waiter Ohio
Toledo 22 Hands(Hearns), David 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 22 Hands(Hearns), William 8 M Mullatto Ohio Lived with Randle family
Toledo 23 Hall, Martha 23 F White Ohio Lived with Randle family may have been mother of boys listed as Hands/Hearns.
Toledo 24 Jackson, Hannah 24 F Mullatto Kentucky Cannot read/write
Toledo 24 Jackson, John 37 M Mullatto Porter Virginia
Toledo 24 Jackson, Wilson 0.5 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 25 Good, Arnold 57 M Mullatto Washing Kentucky Cannot read/write
Toledo 25 Good, Isabelle 16 F Mullatto Kentucky
Oregon 26 Brown, Essa (Isa) 116 M Black Virginia Cannot read/write
Toledo 26 Hans(Harris), Levi 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo 26 Hans(Harris), Maria 22 F Black Ohio
Toledo 26 Hans(Harris), Peter 32 M Black Labor North Carolina Cannot read/write
Toledo 26 Hans(Harris), Samuel 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo 27 Franklin, Alvinia 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 27 Franklin, Francis 6 F Mullatto Indiana
Toledo 27 Franklin, Mary J 2 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 27 Franklin, Olevie(Olivia) 23 F Mullatto Tennessee
Toledo 27 Franklin, Samuel 24 M Mullatto Barber $200 North Carolina
Toledo 27 Franklin, Samuel 0.3333333 M Ohio
Toledo 28 Henderson, Alex 20 M Black Barber Indiana Lived with Franklin family (Samuel Franklin)
Toledo 29 Jones, Francis L 31 M Mullatto North Carolina Lived with Franklin family (Samuel Franklin)
Sylvania 30 Merrill(Merrit), Elizabeth 38 F Mullatto Ohio
Sylvania 30 Merrill(Merritt), William H. 40 M Black Barber  $      3,500.00  $       500.00 Virginia
Toledo 31 Wells, L. 15 M Black Ohio Lived with Merrill(Merritt) family
Toledo 32 Johnson, Anna 9 F Mullatto Michigan Lived with Merrill(Merritt) family
Toledo 33 Lott, Charott 26 F Mullatto Servant Canada
Toledo 34 Phillips, Alice 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 34 Phillips, David 28 M Mullatto Waiter Virginia
Toledo 34 Phillips, Francis 24 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 35 Wilson, Henrietta 21 F Mullatto Ohio Lived with Phillips family
Toledo 36 Harris, Ann 6 F Mullatto Michigan
Toledo 36 Harris, Eliza 21 F Mullatto Washing Indiana
Toledo 36 Harris, Isaac 32 M Mullatto Cook Tennessee
Toledo 36 Harris, Ophelia 0.9166667 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 37 Franklin, Ann 21 F Mullatto North Carolina
Toledo 37 Franklin, Belle 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 37 Franklin, Sarah 3 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 37 Franklin, Sinthia 40 F Mullatto Washing North Carolina Cannot read/write
Toledo 38 Linn, Henry 45 M Mullatto Labor Pennsylvania Cannot read/write
Toledo 38 Linn, Mary 43 F Mullatto North Carolina Cannot read/write
Toledo 39 Ricken, Sidney 8 M Mullatto Ohio Yes
Toledo 39 Ricken, Alfonso 40 M Mullatto Barber Tennessee
Toledo 39 Ricken, Cathe 23 F Mullatto Tennessee
Toledo 40 Goulder, Ann 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 40 Goulder, Lucinda 23 F Mullatto Ohio Cannot read/write
Toledo 40 Goulder, Shadrick 24 M Black Labor Tennessee
Toledo 40 Goulder, William 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 41 Bennett, Ann 29 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 41 Bennett, John 32 M Mullatto Porter Indiana
Toledo 42 Kelly, Prince 41 M Black Store Market Kentucky
Toledo 43 Whitfield, John 18 M Black Ohio  Jail – Burglary
Toledo 44 Rice, Mary 22 F Black Ohio
Toledo 44 Rice, William H 38 M Black White Washer Illinois
Toledo 45 Rhodes, Julia 19 F Black Ohio
Toledo 45 Rhodes, Simon 32 M Black Porter Ohio Cannot read/write
Toledo 46 Pinchen, Elizabeth 50 F Black Virginia Cannot read/write
Toledo 47 Stevens, George 10 M Black Indiana Yes
Toledo 47 Stevens, Georgianna 8 F Black Ohio Yes
Toledo 47 Sevens, Rachel 30 F Black Indiana Cannot read/write
Toledo 47 Stevens, Eddy 2 M Black Ohio
Toledo 47 Stevens, Edward 56 M Black White Washer South Carolina
Toledo 47 Stevens, Georgetta 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo 47 Stevens, William 0.6666667 M Black Ohio
Toledo 48 Tabbot, David 10 M Black Indiana Yes
Toledo 48 Tabbot, John 8 M Black Indiana Yes
Toledo 48 Tabbot, Lusinda 12 F Black Indiana Yes
Toledo 48 Tabbot, Benjamin 64 M Black Blacksmith Kentucky
Toledo 48 Tabbot, Benjamin 18 M Black Barber Indiana
Toledo 48 Tabbot, Henry 24 M Black Labor Indiana
Swanton 48 Tabbot, Mary 20 F Black Indiana
Swanton 48 Tabbot, Sarah 50 F Black Indiana
Oregon 49 Blacker(Blackshear), George 46 M Black White Washer Virginia
Oregon 49 Blacker(Blackshear), Mary J 40 F Black Virginia
Toledo 50 Lock, John 12 M Black Ohio Yes
Toledo 50 Lock, John B 38 M Black Barber Tennessee
Toledo 50 Lock, Mary 27 F Black South Carolina
Toledo 51 Mayfair, Ann 15 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo 51 Mayfair, Francis 17 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo 51 Mayfair, Naomi(?) 9 F Mullatto Michigan
Toledo 51 Mayfair, Thomas 33 M Mullatto Waiter Virginia
Sylvania 51 Mayfair, William 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 52 Briggs, Ellen 17 F White Servant Michigan Lived with William Jones family
Toledo 52 Jones, Mary A 21 F Mullatto New York
Toledo 52 Jones, William M. 29 M Black Cook Georgia
Toledo 53 Vanblunt(?), Mary 24 F Black Ohio
Toledo 53 Vanblunt(?), William 25 M Black Waiter New York
Manhattan 53 Vanblunt(?), William 0.5833333 M Black Ohio
Toledo 54 Jacobs, Fanny 3 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 54 Jacobs, Harriet 24 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 54 Jacobs, John 1 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 54 Jacobs, Oliver 28 M Mullatto Waiter  $         300.00 Indiana
Toledo 54 Jacobs, Oliver 7 M Mullatto Michigan
Toledo 54 Jacobs, Sarah 5 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 55 Parks, Albertson 11 M Mullatto Ohio Yes Lived with Jacobs family
Oregon 56 Davis, Mitch(Hatch) 34 M Mullatto Barber Tennessee
Toledo 56 Smith, Elizabeth 31 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo 56 Smith, George 16 M Mullatto Labor Ohio
Toledo 57 Dease, John 33 M Black Labor Kentucky Cannot read/write
Swanton 57 Dease, John 4 M Black Ohio
Toledo 57 Dease, Joseph 0.0833333 M Black Ohio
Toledo 57 Dease, Julia 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo 57 Dease, Mary 9 F Black Ohio
Toledo 57 Dease, Sarah 24 F Black Kentucky
Richfield 58 Davis, Mary 39 F Mullatto Canada Cannot read/write Nova Scotia listed as birthplace
Toledo 59 Douglass, Horace 38 M Black Labor Virginia
Toledo 60 Dunbar, James 40 M Black White Washer Virginia
Toledo 61 Washington, James 64 M Black Laborer Virginia Cannot read/write
Toledo 61 Washington, William 20 M Black Laborer New York
Oregon 62 Brown, JW 55 M Black Labor New York
Toledo 63 Edwards, Mary E 9 F Mullatto Ohio Yes
Toledo 63 Edwards, Elizabeth 27 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 63 Edwards, William 29 M Mullatto Labor Virginia
Toledo 63 Edwards, William 56 M Mullatto Barber Virginia
Toledo 63 Edwards, William 6 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 64 Lewis, Ellen 11 F Mullatto Ohio Yes
Toledo 64 Lewis, William 19 M Mullatto Barber Ohio Lived with Edwards (William Edwards) family
Toledo 64 Whitfield, Mary A 17 F Black Canada Lived with Edwards (William Edwards) family
Toledo 65 Wilson, Charles 11 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 65 Wilson, Emma 6 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 65 Wilson, Julia 31 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo 65 Wilson, William 33 M Black White Washer Virginia
Toledo 66 Tusang, Kate 7 F Mullatto Michigan
Toledo 66 Tusang, Mary 35 F Black Servant Virginia Cannot read/write
Toledo 67 Massey, Thomas 23 M Mullatto Labor Virginia
Sylvania 68 McGinnis, Robert 27 M Mullatto Labor West Indies
Toledo 69 Hawkins, Willaim 28 M Mullatto Labor DC
Oregon 70 Dangerfield, C 18 M Black Labor Virginia
Toledo 71 Johnson, Henry 23 M Black Labor Kentucky
Toledo 72 Wright, Nad(Ian) 21 M Black Labor Ohio
Toledo 73 Estill, James 17 M Black Labor Kentucky
Toledo 74 Hudlin, Joseph 18 M Mullatto Labor Kentucky
Sylvania 75 Moore, William 18 M Mullatto Labor Virginia
Toledo 76 Young, Elijah 17 M Mullatto Labor Virginia
Toledo 77 Chase, William 22 M Black Labor Maryland
Toledo 78 Gray, John 18 M Black Labor New York
Toledo 79 Price, Nat 16 M Black (Can’t Read)Labor Delaware
Toledo 80 Franklin, E. 16 M Black Labor Ohio
Toledo 81 Felton, John 40 M Black Porter Delaware
Toledo 82 Harris, Franklin(Massa) 28 M Black Cook Kentucky
Toledo 83 Pickett, H. 25 M Black (Can’t Read)Labor Kentucky
Toledo 84 Hill, James 18 M Black Porter Kentucky
Toledo 85 Robison, Charles 18 M Black Waiter Kentucky
Toledo 86 Crane, Henry 25 M Mullatto Waiter Kentucky
Toledo 87 Harris, William 16 M Mullatto Waiter Ohio
Toledo 88 Todd, Benjamin 20 M Black Waiter Ohio
Toledo 89 Newton, Richard 31 M Black Waiter New York
Toledo 90 Jones, Willy 25 M Black Cook North Carolina
Toledo 91 Rhodes, Simon 32 M Black Porter Maryland
Toledo 92 Congrove, Charles 24 M Mullatto Porter Louisiana
Toledo 93 Prichard, J 18 M Mullatto Bus Boy Ohio
Toledo 94 Jackson, John 31 M Mullatto Porter  $      1,000.00 Virginia
Swanton 95 Henders, Thomas 23 M Black Labor Georgia
Toledo 96 Andews, Charles 31 M Black Labor Kentucky
Toledo 97 Russell, William 20 M Mullatto Labor Virginia
Toledo 98 Price, Joseph 25 M Mullatto Labor Virginia
Toledo 99 Henley, Moses 24 M Black Labor Ohio
Toledo 100 Phillips, David 30 M Black Labor Maryland
Toledo 101 Paine, Eliza 3 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 101 Paine, Ellin 6 F Mullatto Ohio
Sylvania 101 Paine, John W. 29 M Black Cook Virginia
Sylvania 101 Paine, Lusinda 27 F Mullatto Washing North Carolina
Toledo 102 Preston, Eliza 41 F Mullatto Virginia Lived with Paine family, may be mother of wife.
Toledo 103 Williams, Maria 37 F Black Servant Ohio Cannot read/write
Toledo 104 Clark, Sarah 50 F Black Servant Virginia
Sylvania 105 Walker, Bill 20 M Black Labor Kentucky
Toledo 106 Harris, William 19 M Mullatto Labor Canada Cannot read/write Lived on farm of white family Lewis
Toledo 107 Jenkins, Mary 60 F Black Virginia Cannot read/write Lived on farm of white family McLedge
Toledo 107 Jenkins, Stephen 70 M Black Labor Virginia Cannot read/write Lived on farm of white family McLedge
Toledo 108 Dorsey, T. 60 M Black Labor Virginia Cannot read/write Lived on farm of white family McLedge
Toledo 109 Dent, Mary 10 F Black Ohio Yes
Toledo 109 Dent, George 0.1666667 M Black Ohio
Toledo 109 Dent, J. 30 M Black Labor Kentucky
Toledo 109 Dent, John 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo 109 Dent, Julia 3 F Black Canada
Toledo 109 Dent, Sarah 27 F Black
Oregon 110 Cunningham, E. 48 M Black Labor Virginia
Oregon 110 Cunningham, Ellen M. 5 F Black Ohio
Oregon 110 Cunningham, Marion L. 8 M Black Ohio
Toledo 110 Cunningham, Nancy 38 F Black Viginia Cannot read/write
Oregon 110 Cunningham, William H. 21 M Black Ohio
Toledo 111 Tilton, John 37 M Black Farmer Delaware
Toledo 111 Tilton, Sarah 29 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo 112 Ingraham, John 40 M Black Laborer Georgia Lived on farm with Tilton family
Toledo 113 Deringer, Woodsen 14 M Black Ohio Lived on farm with Tilton family
Sylvania 114 Walker, Caroline A. 7 F Black Ohio
Sylvania 114 Walker, Charles 38 M Black Farmer $20 Michigan
Toledo 114 Walker, Cinderilla 36 F Black Ohio
Sylvania 114 Walker, George 9 M Black Ohio
Sylvania 114 Washington, Josephine 80 F Mullatto Michigan Lived with Walker family in Sylvania, may be mother of Cinderilla Walker.
Manhattan 115 Nathan, William H. 14 M Black Pennsylvania Yes
Sylvania 115 Nathan, Elizabeth 19 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo 115 Nathan, Joseph 48 M Black Farm Labor $50 Pennsylvania
Toledo 115 Nathan, Joseph 20 M Black Pennsylvania
Toledo 115 Nathan, Mary H 21 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo 115 Nathan, Susan 42 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo 116 Patterson, John 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 116 Patterson, Lewis 32 M Black Farmhand Indiana
Sylvania 116 Wilson, Harriet 30 F Mullatto Ohio
Sylvania 116 Wilson, James M 6 M Mullatto Ohio
Sylvania 116 Wilson, William 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo 117 Smith, John 40 M Black Labor Kentucky Cannot read/write
Manhattan 118 Marony, Cornelius 10 M Mullatto Ohio Yes Lived with family of Abram Johnson Jr. from PA
Total Number of Individuals 269
Number labled “Black” 128
Number labeled “Mullatto” 130
Number labeled “White” 7
Number of Mixed Race Families (white wife) 6
Number of Mixed Race Families (white husband) 1
Average Age 23.093519
Average Age of Males 23.882911
Average Age of Females 21.979911
Number of Females 111
Number of Males 158
Age of Oldest Male (William Jenkins) 70
Age of Oldest Female (Essa Brown) 116
Age of Youngest Male (Joseph Dease) 1 month
Age of Youngest Female (Ophelia Harris) 8 months
Number Older than 15 179
Number 15 or Younger 90
Toledo Residents 233
Sylvania Residents 19
Manhattan (North End) Residents 5
Swanton Residents 4
Richfield Residents 1
Oregon (East Side) Residents 11
Spencer Residents 1
Birthplace of Canada 11
Birthplace of DC 2
Birthplace of Delaware 3
Birthplace of Georgia 3
Birthplace of Germany 2
Birthplace of Illinois 1
Birthplace of Indiana 18
Birthplace of Ireland 1
Birthplace of Kentucky 21
Birthplace of Maryland 5
Birthplace of Michigan 14
Birthplace of Mississippi 1
Birthplace of New York 9
Birthplace of North Carolina 12
Birthplace of Ohio 102
Birthplace of Pennsylvania 8
Birthplace of South Carolina 2
Birthplace of Tennessee 8
Birthplace of Virginia 37
Birthplace of West Indies 1
Occupation of Barber 13
Occupation of Buggy Maker (Edward Nicklos) 1
Occupation of Bus Boy 1
Occupation of Butcher (Jacob Green – white) 1
Occupation of Carpenter (Robert Nickos) 1
Occupation of Farm Labor/Farm Hand 2
Occupation of Farmer (Charles Walker & John Tilton) 2
Occupation of Laborer 44
Occupation of Porter 9
Occupation of Servant (all females) 6
Occupation of Ship Wash Hand (James Liner) 1
Occupation of Washing (all female except 1) 6
Occupation of White Washer 5
Occupation of Waiter 12
First Most Popular Surname (Franklin)
Second Most Popular Surname (Harris)
Value of Real Estate  $  6,800.00
Personal Estate Value  $  1,320.00
Numer of individuals who could not read/write 17
Number of individuals in Jail (John Whitfield) 1
Number of children who attended school within the year 22
Maumee 118 Bowan, John 54 M Black Labor Maryland Cannot read/write
Maumee 118 Bowan, Mary 53 F Black Virginia Cannot read/write
Maumee 118 Bowan, William 14 M Black Indiana
Maumee 118 Bowan, John 14 M Black Indiana
Maumee 118 Bowan, Mary 12 F Black Indiana
Maumee 119 Johnson, Jenny 16 F Black Servant Kentucky Enumerated in white household of Elizabeth Nelson
Maumee 120 Fields, James 44 M Mullatto Doctor New York
Maumee 120 Fields, Mary 39 F Mullatto New York
Maumee 120 Fields, John 13 M Mullatto New York
Maumee 120 Fields, William 1 M Mullatto Ohio
Waterville 121 Smith, Nancy 66 F Mullatto Pennsylvania
Additions added on 11/1/2016

Free Black Virginians to Ohio – Viney and Viers Family

Finally got some time to devote back to the blog. I’ve been ill and just crazy busy with kid stuff over the past 3-5 months but as usual, I’ve been doing some quick (or long) research in between my last post and today.

I have recently started digging into my great grandmother’s family – the McCowns.

As a kid, I noticed that her family surname was on one of the stain glass windows at Third Baptist Church and I always thought they must have had something to do with the early beginnings of the church. Recently I was surprised to find out that one of her grandfathers was an early pastor.

My great grandmother’s father was named Hillus McCown.  His mother was Hannah Rebecca Viney/Vina.  Her parents were Madison Viney and Mary Viers.

Madison (or Mattison) Viney was born in approximately 1820 (around 1823) in Giles County, Virginia. He was born into a family of free people of color in the state of Virginia who had an ancestry back to the early 1700s.

Via information obtain from the website “Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware” I found information that showed that the Viney family (also spelled Vina/Vena/Veny/Venie/Venners/Veney, etc.) were the descendants of a white woman named Elizabeth Venners who had a “mullatto” child of mixed race named William Venners/Viney. William was born in approximately 1701 and had to sue for his freedom based on him being the child of a white (probably indentured servant) woman.

William’s granddaughter, Rachel Viney was registered as a “taxable” free negro multiple times throughout the 1800s. In 1825 she and her children were listed on a register of “free negroes” of Giles County, Virginia. The youngest person in the family listed on that register in 1825 was “Mattison Viney” who was listed as 2 years old in 1825.

Madison later moved to Ohio. Many free persons of color from Virginia migrated to both Kentucky and Ohio in the mid 1800s. The earliest record of Madison’s residency in Ohio was found via familysearch on the 1850 census.

1850 Viney Census

1850 Census of the “Vina” family 

Madison and his wife Mary were listed as living in Shelby County, Ohio in 1850. Upon seeing their residency, I researched to see if they had a marriage record on file in Ohio and found that they were married in Galia County, Ohio in 1839. His wife’s last name was listed as “Vires.”

Madison and Mary lived in the Shelby County area until 1880 when they showed up on census records living in Toledo, Ohio.  A history of Third Baptist Church showed that he was one of the early pastors of the church during its trying period in regards to finances and membership (“The Black Church – Third Baptist Church, Toledo, Ohio“).

The period between 1868 and 1891 was a Period of Struggle for the newly established Third Baptist Church, in leadership and finances. During this period, the record indicates there were nineteen pastors, several loans and two locations. The only names of pastors that can be recalled are Reverends Burch, Meadows, Mattison Viney, Thomas Frazier, Johnson and Dyer.

Madison and Mary had 14 children and I found various records regarding the marriages and deaths of their children throughout the US all the way to Texas and even one who was married in Canada.

Reverend Madison Viney died in 1897 and was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery.

Mary Viers Viney was born in Virginia and moved with her family to Galia County, Ohio in the early 1820s. Information obtained from the website mentioned above (“Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware“) show that the Viers family was descended of a woman named Mary “Via” who had a mullatto child born in 1754 named Benjamin Viers.

Benjamin enlisted as a Private in the Revolutionary war in 1775 out of Henry County, Virginia. He subsequently came back to Virginia after the conclusion of the war but moved to Galia County, Ohio around 1823 with his family, including his then adult son, William Viers, the father of Mary Viers Viney.

Mary Viers Viney died in 1917 and was buried alongside her husband at Woodlawn Cemetery. Her death certificate confirmed that her father was William Viers along with listing her mother – Anna Douglas.

Viney Grave

Grave of Madison Viney and Mary Vires Viney – Historic Woodlawn Cemetery

Some checking onto the google news archives rewarded me with a picture of her and some of her grandchildren/great grandchildren. I’m not certain who the children are but it was great find as I usually don’t turn up any pictures of this nature.

Mary Viney and Grandchildren

Mary Vires Viney aged approximately 85 and McCown grandchildren

Mary, of course is the grandmother in the middle.  This was a picture posted in the Toledo Blade on February 11, 1990 and it listed this family as Grandmother Viney with the McCown family from 1905.

I am unsure of who the children are.  The article of which this picture came cited the Mott Branch library here in Toledo in regards to having a picture depository of African American Toledoans.  I plan on visiting there in the upcoming week in order to see if I can get a better copy of the picture and to see if any other names were noted in regards to the children.

The Story of Mrs. Julia King – Former Slave/Toledo Resident

During my research and due to my interest in black history, I discovered the Federal Works Progress Administration’s (WPA) slave narrative collection about 15 years ago.

During “The Great Depression” of the 1930s, President Roosevelt created the WPA in order to put educated Americans, especially in the arts, back into the workforce due to the extreme unemployment and economic conditions faced by Americans during this era.

Luckily, the WPA took an interest in recording the lives of black Americans who were former slaves.  The year 1935 marked seventy years since the end of the Civil War.  Those persons interviewed by WPA workers were primarily in their 80s and 90s.  Some were centenarians (aged 100 or above).   Two individuals who lived in Toledo and who attended Third Baptist Church were interviewed – Julia King and Hannah Davidson.  Both of their interviews provide a wealth of information about slavery, escaping slavery, and black history in Toledo.

Mrs. Julia King was approximately 80 years old when she was interviewed in 1937.  She was the wife of Toledo’s first black police officer – Albert King picture below.

Albert King

At the time of her interview, Mrs. King lived at 731 Oakwood Ave.  A search on googlemaps shows that her house has been demolished as an empty lot is now at that address.

She spoke of how both of her biological daughters died, one as an infant and one at 13 years of age.  Black children in Toledo had high mortality rates in the late 1800s and early 1900s.  During the time of the interview, Mrs. King lived with her adopted daughter Elizabeth KING KIMBREW (KIMBROUGH).

In her interview she spoke of how she was the first black “colored juvenile officer” in the city of Toledo.  She worked in this position for 20 years.  The first 3 years she did it on a volunteer basis and was not paid for her work.

Mrs. King’s maiden name was Julia WARD.  She was born in Louisville, Kentucky to Samuel and Matilda WARD.  She had a sister named Mary WARD who was about 1.5 years older than she was.  Her parents were slaves in Kentucky.  Her father ran away via the Underground Railroad to Canada and left her mother, herself, and her sister in Kentucky.

Later, Mrs. King’s mother also decided to run away and join Samuel in freedom.  Mrs. King spoke of how her mother was happy that on the day that she planned to run away, Matilda’s mistress decided not to take Mary to the market with her.  The mistress usually had Mary accompany her to the market.  Matilda was prepared to run away and leave Mary behind, but due to the mistresses decision, she took both Julia and Mary to freedom.

They made it all the way to Detroit via boat and then went up to Windsor to meet Mrs. King’s father, who had been working there as a cook. They eventually settled in Detroit and she spent her childhood there prior to moving to Toledo.

In her narrative, Mrs. King also relates lots of information about the conditions faced by slaves on their plantation and about a song her mother sang to her.  The WPA had a specific list of questions that they were supposed to ask their interviewees and one was to ask them to sing a song from their childhood.  During the 1930s there was a large interest in black folk music for anthropological study and the interviews reflect this interest.

Mrs. King mentioned that she was a member of Third Baptist church and was drawn to the church due to them having a requirement of an “immersing baptism.”  She also mentioned that she was involved with national colored women’s clubs and had met Booker T. Washington and his wife and had heard a reading of Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poems in Toledo.  Dunbar lived in Toledo for about a year while he was ill with tuberculosis, an extremely common disease in the late 19th and early 20th century.  He would eventually succomb to the condition as did many of my own family members.

I loved Mrs. King’s interview.  Mostly due to the wealth information obtained from her recount of the escape from slavery, a topic which is now a heavy focus for historical research.  I also loved that she seemed to come alive to me, mostly due to my favorite quote from her interiew when she was asked about Frederick Douglass (as mentioned a man I thoroughly love)

“The only thing I had against Frederick Douglas was that he married a white woman.”  LOL!  I thought it hilarious that she exhibited the same feelings many people have about interracial marriages even today amongst older black women.

That said, Mrs. King seemed like a formidable woman.  She had been through a lot and it is amazing to me that she went to the same church that my family attended.  I had read Mrs. King’s interview prior to my step great-grandmother passing away and asked her if she knew Mrs. King and Mrs. Davidson, another former slave interviewed in Toledo.  She said she knew of them at church and had seen both but didn’t know them personally since they were older members and she was just a young woman during this time period.  It is fascinating to me that she knew actual slaves and I knew her.  She only recently died in 2008.  This goes to show that we are not as far removed from slavery as we think we are.

The Story of Mrs. Julia King – Toledo Ohio


A review of records from www.familysearch.org showed the following in regards to Mrs. King’s listed family members from her narrative:

Mary WARD born appx 1856 in Kentucky, died in Detroit, MI in 1891 – listed parents were Samuel and Matilda WARD (Michigan Deaths 1800-1995)

Julia KING born appx 1856 in Kentucky, died in Toledo, OH in 1938 (one year after interviewed – they made it in time!) – listed parents were Samuel WARD and Matilda MACALVIN, listed spouse Albert KING (Ohio Deaths 1908-1953) buried at Forrest Cemetery

Albert McKinney KING born 1/21/1851 in Toronto, Canada, died in Toledo, OH 1934

Samuel WARD born appx 1830, died in Detroit, MI 1890 (Michigan Deaths 1867-1897)

Matilda WARD born 8/3/1844, died in Toledo, OH 1916 lived at 731 Oakwood Ave, buried at Forrest Cemetery (Ohio Deaths 1840-2001)

Marriage record of Betty(Elizabeth) KING KIMBROUGH (spelled KIMBREW in the narrative) married on 8/12/1935 to Samuel KIMBROUGH both were divorced at time of marriage and this was the second marriage for both parties

Marriage record of Elizabeth KING married on 9/14/1928 to John LYTLE.  This was the first marriage of both parties.  Elizabeth KING listed as 21 years of age at date of marriage.

Marriage record of Albert KING and Julia WARD married on 10/20/1875 in Toledo, Ohio


Part 2: Researching Black American Genealogy – Actively Researching

Free information you say! (I hear you state in your mind!)

Yes, free.

As stated earlier, I did start out on ancestry.com.  It is a wonderful site and  I never suggest people not utilize that site at all but there are a lot of free resources available that in my opinion are just as good as the pretty expensive ancestry.com service.

But before we delve into all that, the first step everyone should take when beginning to do genealogical research is to do what I did and badger your older relatives.

It doesn’t have to be annoying for them or invasive, as I’ve found older people don’t like to be bombarded with questions about who was “so and so’s” mom and dad or grandpa and what year they were born, etc.  If you can just get names and interesting stories out of your relatives about ancestors, that is a start.

I started out by asking my own grandmother and great grandmother if they knew their grandparents and what were their grandparents’ names and what sorts of things they did, churches they went to, best dishes they cooked, funny things my current relative remembered about them.  This is more respectful of your older relatives and more useful for your research in bringing your ancestors to life instead of just a name and dates of birth, marriage, and death.

Make a small family tree, hopefully back to at least your great grandparents and then go online to do more research based on the information you have compiled.

My favorite website for genealogical research is www.familysearch.org.

Family Search is a free online genealogical database.  They have much of the same data as ancestry.com but you don’t have to pay them for anything.  Everything is right at your fingertips.

If you want to use ancestry because they have great ads online and commercials then you should sign up for their free trial next.  I am one of those people who will set an alarm telling me to cancel before the deadline so that I am certain not to pay for anything.  If you chose to go the free trial way, be sure to do the same if you are not financially able to shell out hundreds of dollars a year for an online subscription.

If you want to use ancestry outside of the free trial or don’t want to do the free trial but still want to check them out then visit your local library.

Here in Toledo, I frequently visit our downtown/main branch.  The Local History Center is located on the 3rd floor and they have a WEALTH of information in that section of our library.  You also get free access to ancestry.com’s library edition along with other online genealogical databases like Heritage Quest.

If you don’t have a library card, get one.  Most libraries, including here in Toledo allow you to have free access at home to many of their genealogical databases!  Heritage Quest is free to use at home.  Familysearch.org many times won’t show actual images of census records, but Heritage Quest has all images and transcriptions of every Federal American census from 1790-1940.

I have actually come to a point in my research where most traditional online records are no longer useful for me.  Due to being black, there are very few records of our people prior to 1870 and the end of the Civil War.  There is information, but you have to really dig through a lot of online images and it can be VERY tedious as you cannot easily search by name many of the court records or newspaper records or even books that may have been written about the local area that feature your ancestors.

Since I am not utilizing as many online sources, I have branched out and become more of a library researcher.  I have been reviewing books about census records and recently had a great find that I will discuss on a later post while visiting a library in Chicago.  I am scourging through the microfilm newspapers at the Local History Center at the Toledo Lucas County Public Library.  I have been contacting other libraries to request that they perform some research for me for a fee for distant ancestors who did not live in this area.

All that to say, research is a really fun hobby.  There is nothing like sitting at a standstill for months (and for me in some cases years) and then FINALLY finding a breakthrough that opens up more avenues of research.  For those starting out please be sure to view the “helpful links” and as long as you don’t ask me to create an entire tree for you, I’d even be willing to look up some local requests for ancestry research for you.


www.familysearch.org Family Search Website this site has been invaluable to me in regards to the wealth of information you can get from census data, marriage info, and death certificates from the State of Ohio.  There is a TON of great info on this site and it is completely free.

Toledo Lucas County Public Library Research Databases (this will get you to the page that shows all the biography and genealogical resources available from the Toledo Lucas County Public Library.  You can use their databases – all except ancestry.com – for free with your library card at home)

Hertiage Quest Online Heritage Quest provides all census data.  Be sure to go through the link above from the Toledo library in order to log in with your card and PIN so you can get free access.

WGTE Channel 30 Documentary A documentary called “Cornerstones:  The African Americans” about the black American community of Toledo, Ohio.


Part 1: Researching Black American Genealogy – How I got started

Many black Americans today are interested in learning more about the history of their families, including those of us here in Toledo.

I always have been a self-proclaimed “history nerd.”  Black history has always been a passion.  I grew up here in Toledo and am a product of Toledo Public Schools.  I felt that I received an adequate, “All American” education in our public school system even though many people here gripe about the state of TPS.  I recently moved back here to my hometown and being away for over 15 years has showed me that all in all, we have pretty good schools and the curriculum here is much better than other larger cities, especially in the southeast where I lived during my time away.

That said, I didn’t learn a lot about black history in TPS.  Mostly just during “Black History Month.”  During February, we primarily learned about the same people every year – Martin Luther King, Harriet Tubman, and various sports figures like Jackie Robinson.  Only the “firsts” it seems were important during Black History Month.  I learned nothing of local black history until I saw a special on our local PBS station – Channel 30.  I didn’t grow up in the Central City.  I have been told that the schools in that area did focus more on black history but the majority of my school years were spent in the Old South End schools of Westfield, Jones Jr. High, and Libbey where I graduated from high school in the late 1990s.

Luckily I was a voracious reader.  I read “Narrative in the Life of Frederick Douglas, an American Slave” when I was around 9 or 10 years old and it made me obsessed with black American history.  I’ll speak on my odd love affair with the great Mr. Douglas at another time, I’m sure but we’ll save that for later.

I read every “narrative” I could find at our wonderful library system here in Toledo after reading Douglass’ book.  I read all I could on slavery in general.  I read about black people in America and the system of indentured servitude.  Everything was and is still pretty fascinating.

My mother made me watch “Roots” every year on TV and when I was around 12 or 13, I finally paid attention to it and became intrigued and wondered if I could find out about my own family and trace us back to Africa.

Unfortunately, like the majority of black Americans, my family was not aware of any old African ancestors.  We had no passed down Mandika  words.  So I began my research by badgering my older relatives about our family history.  I know I particularly got on my grandmother’s nerves while helping her remodel her home in the Old West End when I was a teenager.  She finally told me that many of the answers to my questions were “none of my business.”  But she did give me a couple picture books that belonged to her mother of which I still have in my possession.  And she told me of her parents lives and her grandparents who she remembered and even a great grandparent who she said was an “Indian.”  (Us black folks always have an “Indian in the family.”  This will be discussed later as well).

Luckily I was born during the internet age.  We got “America Online” service in my home on a black Hewlett Packard that I thought was super “techy” in 1995 or 1996.  I found a site that listed Ohio death certificates and looked up all the last names I had gathered from my maternal grandmother and my paternal great grandmother.  I found the Social Security Death Index.  I found a lot of different people but could not 100% connect them to my own family.

I found ancestry.com back when it was free and developed my first family tree around 1999 when I was 20 years old.  I went all the way back to the 1870 census on multiple branches of my tree which today is even more simple to accomplish given the large amount of free information available online for us to peruse.