Tag Archives: underground railroad

Notable Black Toledoans – George W. TUCKER and Dr. Alpheus W. TUCKER

My research of late has shown a lot of connections between my own ancestors who were early Toledo residents and the black communities in SE Michigan, in particular our larger city to the north – Detroit.   I’ve also discovered some connections to Detroit for some of our notable 19th century black residents.

In reviewing some of the black Toledoans who were mentioned as having been involved in Underground Railroad activities in local newspapers, it was noted in the post regard William H. MERRITT, that in 1858 the negroes of Toledo held a meeting to determine who would be the delegate sent from our city to the convention held in Columbus, Ohio.  The delegate chosen, per that news article was G.W. TUCKER.

George W. TUCKER was enumerated in the City of Toledo on the 1860 census.  It was shown that he was born in Kentucky around 1812 and had four younger persons, presumably his children, in his household.  Mary W., aged 23; Georgetta A., aged 18; Alpheus W. (or Alphonse) aged 16; and Caspar M. (or Cassius) aged 14.  In 1860 George was 48 years old and listed as a “mullatto.”  He was a Barber and owned real estate worth $300 and a personal estate worth $250.

In a review of George W. TUCKER’s life, I did not find much more about his residency in Toledo, except for the note below posted in the Toledo Daily Blade on December 30, 1858.

We are advised by the receipt of the proceedings of a meeting of colored people held at their school-house in this city, recently but which are too lengthy for our space, that a resolution was passed to send a delegate to the Under Ground R.R. Convention, to be held at Columbus on the 5th and 6th of January. Agreeable to previous arrangements a mass meeting was then held on Tuesday evening last, for the election of a delegate, resulting in the choice of G.W. Tucker. The officers of the meeting were W.H. Merritt, President, and M.H. Hawkins, Secretary

Per Toledo City Directories starting in 1864, TUCKER was not listed as a resident; however, George W. TUCKER “colored” was listed in the 1858 City Directory, which can be viewed via the Toledo Lucas County Public Library’s online digital archive.  He was labeled as a “barber” and located at “Locust b Ontario and Michigan, east side.”  A review of death registers for the city showed that there was a “colored” man of the same name and age of George W. TUCKER who died in 1862 in the city. It appears that TUCKER moved to the city around 1850.

A quick google of his name brought up a connection between TUCKER and famed black Underground Railroad conductor from Detroit by the name of William LAMBERT.  LAMBERT lead a group of of primarily black men in an organization he called  “African American Mysteries:  Order of the Men of Oppression” also called the “Men of Mysteries.” He and other notable Detroit abolitionists were actively involved in transporting runaway slaves from Detroit to Canada during the antebellum period.  Per the text “The Underground Railroad in Michigan” LAMBERT was interviewed by a reporter in 1886 and spoke of how 60,000 men took the “order” and became members of his secret organization whose primary focus was helping those who “self emancipated” themselves to get to Canada.  Unfortunately his records detailing those transported to freedom and those who worked within “the order” have unknown whereabouts.  In the book mentioned above, it was noted that George W. TUCKER was an agent who handled subscriptions to a newspaper called “The Mystery” founded by Martin DELANY of Pennsylvania, another black abolitionist and Underground Railroad administrator.  TUCKER handled subscriptions for this paper in the Detroit area.

Other information reviewed regarding the history of George W. TUCKER uncovered that he was one of the 9 black/colored residents listed in Detroit’s first city directory published in 1837.  He was listed as a hairdresser and a barber many times in Detroit through the 1850s.  As noted above, he was listed in Toledo with his family in 1860.  It is unknown if he was engaged in activities related to the Underground Railroad in Toledo, but his association with other known UGGR Toledoans like William H. MERRITT and his mention of him being a delegate from Toledo to the UGGR convention make this very likely to be the case.

It seems that George TUCKER died in Toledo in 1862 of “consumption.”  He was listed as being 50 years old and buried at Forest Cemetery but a review of cemetery records does not show his name and year of death.  They may not have information that far back for the online records of the cemetery.

A review of the family of George TUCKER showed that his two son’s Alpheus and Cassius lived with a couple with the surname of HUBBARD in 1850 in Detroit when they were children.  I could not find George TUCKER on the 1850 census so he may not have been enumerated that year.

George’s son Cassius TUCKER moved back to Detroit after 1860.  He was listed as a “colored” barber in the City of Detroit directory in 1864 living on “Mullet bet Hastings and St Antoine.”  He was the only “colored” TUCKER living in Detroit during that year.

Cassius later married Eliza JOHNSON a Richmond, Virginia native.  A marriage record has not been found for the couple, but I believe they may have married in the metropolitan District of Columbia area considering that their first born child Beatrice TUCKER was listed as having been born in DC in 1865 on the 1870 Census.  The rest of their children in 1870 – Alberta, born 1867; and Octavia born 1870 were listed as having been born in Michigan.

The DC connection I felt was plausible considering that Cassius’  brother – Alpheus (or Alphonse or William A TUCKER) was living in the DC area in the 1860s following the Civil War.

Alpheus W. Tucker showed up in numerous queries due to being a physician who was was an early black physician working in Washington, DC after the Civil War.  Research into Alpheus showed that he and his brother Cassius grew up in Toledo and received their early education in the city.  More than likely they attended the segregated public school system of TPS or the private Colored School administered by Warren AME church due to them being children in the city prior to the 1873 desegregation of the school system.  Alpheus later went on to attend Wilberforce College between the years of 1861 and 1863.  One of his classmates included Dr. Charles Burleigh PURVIS, who was the son of two leading black abolitionist families in Philadelphia.  Alpheus attended the Iowa College of Physicians and Surgeons and graduated in 1865.   Dr. Alpheus Tucker worked as a civilian surgeon during the Civil War at Contraband Hospital.  He also had a record listed in the District of Columbia’s Freedman’s Bureau Field Office Records as receiving a disbursement/payment for work after the war.  His payment was provided on October 21, 1865.  He was paid $100 for services rendered in a department called “A. A. Surgeon.”  Research showed that this was an abbreviation for “Acting Assistant Surgeon” and that persons listed usually were employed as civilians by the medical department working for the Bureau.   Alpheus married a woman named Martha Ellen WOOD on the 24th of January, 1867 and they had one daughter – Estella TUCKER.

A review of Alpheus TUCKER shows that as a black physician, he was limited in opportunities for employment primarily due to race.  Information obtained in the reference below regarding the history of the National Medical Association, shows that he and his black physician colleagues of DC often had to work for government positions or some other job during the day and practice medicine at night.  Due to race prejudice, black doctors were not allowed admitting privileges to local hospitals.  They also primarily saw black patients and due to the black population of DC being made up of primarily newly freed slaves, opportunities for a decent living as a black doctor were limited because many of their patients could not afford to pay for medical services.  Due to this a large percentage of black physicians obtained other degrees in other disciplines in order to be able to make a decent living during the period following the Civil War.

In 1869 Dr. TUCKER was mentioned in various newspaper articles from DC where he was listed as a member of the Republican Party and gave comments regarding local elections in the capital.  He was also the cause of a controversy in the medical community when he applied for admission into the District of Columbia Medical Society along with his Oberlin classmate Dr. Charles PURVIS.  Both men and fellow black physician Dr. Alexander AUGUSTA were denied admission due to “color phobia.”  Their request for admission was deemed a part of the “Trouble of 1869 to 1872” by a history of the National Medical Association. Information found showed that:

On the 9th of June, 1869, two colored physicians, Drs. C. B. PURVIS and A. T. Augusta, were proposed for membership in the Society. At the next meeting,
June 16th, they were reported as eligible. They failed, however, to receive the requisite number of votes to elect them. June 23rd, another colored physician, Dr. A. W. Tucker, was proposed; on the 30th he was reported as eligible, but failed of election.

As a response to not being admitted to the medical association, it was noted that TUCKER and his black colleagues took action and formed their own, integrated medical society:

In response to the rejection of Drs. Purvis, Augusta, and Tucker in 1869, the three Negro physicians and their supports formed a new integrated society which they named the National Medical Society (NMS). In December of that year, amongst much publicity in the local papers, the battle moved to Congress when the NMS appealed to Congress for the repeal of the MSDC’s charter. The grounds for the repeal, according to the NMS, was that the Society was acting in dereliction of its charter by refusing admission to all physicians in the District, regardless of color.

Dr. Alpheus TUCKER was enumerated with his wife and daughter in the WOOD household  in DC on the 1870 census.  Research into his work, shows that he worked in DC as a physician through 1878.  Between 1878 and 1880 he seems to have moved to Detroit, where his brother Cassius had relocated to in the 1860s.  Alpheus was listed as having died in Wayne County, Michigan  in January of 1880.  His widow and child stayed in DC where his wife and later his daughter worked as teachers in the public school system for black students in that city.   Martha E TUCKER his widow (shown below) was mentioned in the publication “The Crisis” as an employee of the DC public schools for 50 years.  She served as a teacher, principal and as a social worker.  Her daughter Estelle also became a teacher.

Martha WOOD TUCKER from “The Crisis” NAACP publication vol 22,  no. 1, pgs 22-23 May, 1921

 

Alpheus’ brother Cassius lived out his life in Detroit and died between 1900 and 1910.  I have yet to locate his death record but his wife Eliza JOHNSON TUCKER was listed as a widow by 1910 in the City of Detroit directory.

REFERENCES:

 

Toledo City Directory 1858 (accessed via TLCPL online digital archives 12/10/2017)

“The Underground Railroad in Michigan” Mull, Carol (see link above)

Ohio County Death Records – Death of GW Tucker, colored (accessed 11.9/2017)

District of Columbia Marriages – 1811-1950, Alpheus W. Tucker (accessed 11/9/2017 – see link above)

The Black Past – African Americans in Medicine in the Civil War (accessed 12/10/2017)

The Founding of the National Medical Association (accessed 12/10/2017)

The Crisis – Volumes 22-24 (short biography and picture of Martha WOOD TUCKER accessed 12/10/2017)

National Archives Research and New Information on WHITFIELD Family

Recently I visited Washington, DC and the National Archives.  I was looking into the pension files of US Colored Troops who were either members of my or my spouse’s family, or people of interest on my list of early black/colored Toledo families.

One of the family’s on my list is the WHITFIELD family.  When I first began this blog, I had found some information that lead me to believe that my earliest WHITFIELD ancestor, named Elias WHITFIELD born approximately 1862-1863 was from North Carolina.  I did some extensive research on the North Carolina WHITFIELD family and they did have a person with the same name and approximate same age who I believed had moved to NW Ohio and was a relative.

In my hobby of genealogical research, I often continue to research the same individuals over and over again.  I had a nagging feeling  that Elias may have been related to one of the earliest black families in Toledo also with the surname of WHITFIELD who were enumerated on the 1850 Census in the City of Toledo. I also discovered that the NC Elias WHITFIELD had moved to Washington, DC with his family and I later found a census record of him from the 20th century when my 3rd great grandfather Elias WHTIFIELD died in 1897.  Due to that discovery, I deleted all of the information I had on my NC WHITFIELD line and started from scratch back at Elias.  I did however, make a tentative link of him to the 1850 Toledo WHITFIELD family and decided to do some off-line research on this family so placed John WHITFIELD’s pension file at the top of my list of ones to request on my visit to the National Archives.

On the 1850 Toledo census the WHITFIELD family was headed by a man named John W. WHITFIELD Sr. and his suspected wife named Hannah.  Per the 1850 Census  – John  was born in approximately 1823 in Virginia.  His wife Hannah was born in Canada around the same year.  They had within their household five children in 1850 – John W Jr., Jacob and James (twins), daughter Ann, and baby Robert WHITFIELD.  All the children were born between 1840 and 1850.

While in DC, I reviewed the file of John W. WHITFIELD Jr. in regards to his pension.  Both he and his younger brother Jacob are known veterans of the Civil War and both fought in the US Colored Troops, 5th Ohio regiment.  They both enlisted here in Toledo for the regiment and went to Delaware County for training.  During their service, both experienced some medical issues/illnesses and John Jr.’s pension file centered on him having had a finger shot off during the war along with a cough where he spit up blood, which was labeled as a “lung disease.”  His younger brother  Jacob died in 1868 in the City of Toledo so did not recieve a pension, but John Jr. filed for one first in 1889 then again in 1892 after a law was passed where veterans didn’t have to prove a disability to receive a pension.  John Jr. had lived primarily in Toledo prior to and after the war but died in Cleveland, Ohio in 1905.

In his pension file, John Jr. had to create a statement and tell a bit of his life and service in the military, including any injuries he suffered.  In his statement, he stated that he was currently married but had been married before to a woman named Mary EDWARDS.  EDWARDS is another early black/colored Toledo family and I had them on a spreadsheet for future review.  Due to seeing Mary EDWARDS’ name, I decided to do some digging on her and her family to see if she had any children and if she and John Jr. could potentially be the parents of Elias WHITFIELD.

Reviewing the EDWARDS family showed that Mary EDWARDS and John WHITFIELD Jr. married in Toledo in 1887.  Also that Mary was born in 1851.  Due to the late marriage date and Mary’s year of birth, she could not have been the mother of Elias due to him being born between 1861-1863 and she was very young at that time.  It was possible but not likely for her to have a child so young and the marriage date didn’t make sense.  John Jr.’s pension file also included a note that he had not had any children so this made him not likely to be the father of Elias Whitfield.

However, I discovered that Mary EDWARDS had an aunt named Lavina EDWARDS born approximately 1840.  Lavina was the sister of Mary’s father – William EDWARDS Jr.  There was an entry in Toledo’s marriage records  via Family Search that showed that she married John WHITFIELD Sr. in 1859.  John WHITFIELD Sr. was no longer living in Toledo in 1860 and I had always wondered where he’d moved to or if he’d  passed away.  Doing a query with him and Lavina, showed that a John WHITFIELD was a saloon keeper living in Detroit in 1860 with a woman of the same age as Lavina, who was enumerated as Elvina.  I thought that that may have been a mis-spelling by the enumerator due to it being similar to Lavina  Within their household was also a Robert WHITFIELD who was the  youngest child of John Sr and Hannah in 1850 and it stated he was born in Ohio.  Also within that household were two other children – Samantha WHITFIELD born 1852 and a baby named Mary Ann who was born in 1860.  So I believe that the 1860 household was indeed John and Lavina Whitfield who had been married in Toledo in 1859.

I did some digging into Samantha WHITFIELD and it did show that her father’s name was John WHITFIELD on her death record.  She was also enumerated in the household of William EDWARDS Sr.  in 1870 in Toledo, Ohio.  William EDWARDS Sr., born approximately 1795-1803 was the father of Lavina EDWARDS, he was living with her in Toledo by 1880.  This further solidified a relationship between these two families.

Some digging into baby Mary Ann from the 1860 Census in the household of Elvina and John WHITFIELD Sr., a death certificate turned up showing that she was the daughter of Lavina EDWARDS and John WHITFIELD.

Another person also had a death certificate that showed she was the daughter of Lavina (this time THOMAS – Lavina married Montgomery THOMAS after the death of her second husband Arthur SPENCER) and John WHITFIELD.  This daughter was named Lulu and she was shown to have been born in approximatly 1863-1864.

A review of the 1870 Census looking for Lavina showed that there was a Lavina SPENCE living in Toledo in the household of Arthur SPENCE.  Within that household included a male named Eli SPENCE.  I concluded that John WHITFIELD must have died between 1860 and 1863 as Lavina re-married a man named Arthur SPENCER in 1863 in Toledo.  By 1880, Arthur also must have passed away because Lavina was listed as a widow and she later re-married a man named Montgomery THOMAS in 1884. Due to her having a male named Eli in her household, I thought maybe this Eli SPENCE(R) was more than likely Eli(as) WHITFIELD.  I’ve seen before in censuses where the surnames of family members were incorrect, mostly due to the re-marriages of their parents and them being given the name of the widowed mother or stepfather instead of their biological surname.  I also  never have seen an Eli or Elias Spencer listed in the city directory of Toledo, however starting in the 1880s Eli or Elias WHITFIELD was listed several times until his death in 1897 and later he was listed as the deceased husband of my 3rd great grandmother Martha JONES WHITFIELD.

Unfortunately Elias WHITFIELD died prior to the establishment of death certificates in the City of Toledo.  So his parents were not listed on the death register since that information was not collected prior to the 20th century in Toledo.  I have never found him on census records in Toledo as Elias WHITFIELD, only in the city directory starting in 1883.  Due to these connections discovered via information on the EDWARDS family as a result of reviewing John WHITFIELD Jr.’s pension file, I am 95% sure that Eli SPENCER may be Elias (also labeled as Eli in directory information) WHITFIELD.  I base this on the fact that Eli would have been the middle or youngest child of John WHITFIELD Sr. and Lavina EDWARDS.  Mary Ann was born in 1860, Eli in 1862-63 and Lulu in 1863-64.  Both Mary Ann and Lulu lived until the 1920s so had a modern era death certificate that listed their parents as John and Lavina, so I feel safe concluding that my 3rd great grandfather Elias WHITFIELD was actually the son of John WHITFIELD Sr., and brother of John WHITFIELD Jr.

I am very excited to explore this connection further and the EDWARDS family, especially since William EDWARDS Sr.  would be a potential 5th great grandfather.  He was a Barber in Toledo and worked and/or lived in the same location as Barber William MERRITT who was a known black UGGR administrator in Toledo.

REFERENCES

1850 Census – Household of John Whitfield

Marriage Record of John Whitfield and Lavina Edwards 1859

1860 Census – Household of John Whitfield

1860 Census – Household of Willien(William Sr.) Edwards – includes Mary Edwards

Marriage Record of Lovinia Whitfield and Arthur Spencer 1863

1870 Census – Household of Arthur Spence 

1870 Census – Household of William Edwards

1880 Census – Household of Lavina Spencer

Death Record of Lulu WHITFIELD VENABLE

 

Early Black Toledo Families – DENT Family

I have always read that many of our early black Toledo families settled here due to being runaway slaves and escaping to their freedom.  Due to Toledo’s distance from the southern slave holding states and its proximity to Canada, I am sure that many of our early black residents were indeed fugitives seeking to own themselves and gain control over their own lives and provide their children with greater opportunities.  Unfortunately, it is very difficult at times putting together the stories of our early resident’s lives to confirm their history, especially if they were not well known and just lived ordinary lives.  For me, the lives of ordinary people are just as important and inspiring as the more well known, so focusing on some of our unknown early black Toledo residents has been rewarding.

Due to the difficulty of researching little known persons, I was excited to find an interesting bit of information about one of the families on my list to research – the DENT family lead by patriarch John DENT.

John DENT and his wife Sarah were first enumerated in NW Ohio on the 1860 census.  At the time, they had in their household four children – Mary, John, Julia, and baby George who at the time was the second youngest black resident in the city at age 2 months.  John was listed as a laborer from Kentucky.  Wife Sarah did not provide her state of birth, but I later discovered she was also from Kentucky.

Some digging into this family produced a source from the University of Kentucky Library system called the “Notable Kentucky African American Database.”  Within this link was information about the ancestry of a woman named Hazel THOMPSON GOMEZ who was the granddaughter of John and Sara DENT.  It states that John DENT escaped slavery by riding his horse into Ohio.

I was very excited to find this information that provided a link to one of our early black residents escaping bondage and finding freedom in our area.  I looked up the book from which this information was taken, which is titled “In Darkness with God:  The Life of Joseph Gomez, a Bishop of the AME Church,” by A. L. Gomez-Jefferson – a great granddaughter of John and Sarah DENT.   The book related John’s escape as follows:

Her maternal grandfather was John DENT, a former slave born in Paducah, Kentucky.  He had escaped from slavery by simply jumping on his master’s horse and “riding like hell” to freedom.  For a while  he settled in Ripley, Ohio, where in 1849 he married Sara Jane GRUBB, a young woman of African parentage who had been born in Sterling, Kentucky.  The couple moved first to Columbus, Ohio and then to Toledo.  Julia Ann, Hazel’s mother, was born in March of 1858, one of their twelve children.

A review of available source material showed that John DENT was living in Wayne, Fayette County, Ohio on the 1850 Census so he probably escaped slavery in the 1840s.  He was enumerated in the household of a woman named Sarah SMITH who also had Kentucky as her state of birth.  Due to this Census document, I believe that Sarah SMITH was the grandmother of John DENT’s wife – Sarah Jane GRUBBS.  This is due to the fact that also within Sarah SMITH’s household was a couple named John M and Emily GRUBBS and their children who were close in age to Sarah.  Them having the maiden name of Sarah as their surname and the other GRUBBS youths being close in age to Sarah, lead me to believe that Sarah Jane was the daughter of John M and Emily GRUBBS.

John DENT and Sarah Jane GRUBBS were actually married in Wayne County, Ohio in 1849, not Ripley, as stated above.  Ripley, Ohio was a known town with significant Underground Railroad activity and activists, so John DENT may have received assistance there and lived there prior to going an hour north to Wayne.   In 1850 a new Fugitive Slave Law was passed in the United States which required state governments and citizens to assist in the capture of runaway slaves so they could be returned to their owners and re-enslaved.  This law caused a lot of panic amongst black families both formerly enslaved and those who had long been free.  Black families during this era moved to what they considered safer areas when they could to avoid being re-captured and sent into slavery or to avoid being kidnapped and made a slave when they had never been before.  It seems the DENT family also fled southern Ohio after 1850 per the book noted above.  They eventually settled in NW Ohio, which was a safer distance away from slave catchers.

As stated above, by 1860, the DENT family lived in NW Ohio, in Oregon specifically.  They were enumerated numerous times between 1860 and 1910 in the city.  John DENT died on May 10, 1890.  His death record said that he died of a concussion suffered via a fall.  He was listed as being 80 years old on the death register, but due to his headstone shown below and other census documents, he was probably in his late 60s or early 70s as he was consistently labeled as being born between 1820 and 1833.  The document said he had been a resident of Toledo about 50 years at the time of his death and that he lived on “Bridge” street in the 6th Ward of the city.

A review of the book noted above provided a sad account of the death of John DENT.  The wife of Joseph GOMEZ, of which the book details his life (and is a great read for anyone interested in early black civil rights leaders) was named Hazel.  She was the daughter of John and Sara DENT’s daughter Julia Anne by  her second husband George THOMPSON, a man who apparently looked white and was of mixed race ancestry (European and Polynesian descent).  Hazel THOMPSON was light skinned and received some  cruel treatment from Sara DENT due to Sara’s personal prejudices against whites/people who were light skinned based on her experiences with whites and the circumstances of her husband’s death.  Page 39 of the text highlighted above, stated:

Ironically, Julia’s father, John DENT, died from a concussion received when he was thrown down a flight of steps by some Polish men during a racial incident.  After that, Julia Anne and her four children went to live with his widow Sara, who made life miserable for Hazel because she was of light skin.  Sara had no use for “yeller niggers,” and that included her granddaughter, who had the “blood of the men who killed her husband.” 

I have been slowly going through early City of Toledo death registers and have noticed a little more than a handful of black men who had been labeled as being “found drowned” or who were labeled as being “murdered.”  It made me wonder about the racial atmosphere in the city during the 19th century in the city and how it probably was much worse than what I had initially thought for black residents.

The text also highlighted the limited opportunities for employment that blacks faced nationwide in this era, whereas Julia DENT made sure to send her daughter to Wilberforce University in Ohio so that she would at least have an opportunity to be a teacher and not live as a domestic all her life.  Black women in America have a history of always having high employment rates due to the precarious economic situation of black families.  Both husbands and wives usually worked and helped support the family.  Both genders were limited due to their ethnicity – men were usually general laborers and performed the most difficult and dangerous jobs for less pay than white men in many cases.  Black women, including Julia DENT,  were usually domestic workers – maids, cooks, or washer women (doing laundry) and both men and women worked long hours.  Julia told her daughter, per the text, after Hazel came home from Wilberforce after only a week with homesickness that Hazel would have to go back because Julia wanted to ensure that :

“she could get an education and not have to work in somebody’s kitchen all her life.”

 

Julia Dent – Early Black Toledoan, mother of Hazel THOMPSON GOMEZ

Though John DENT’s death was and is tragic, it is heartening to me that he lived the majority of his life free, and not as a slave.  He took ownership of his life and endured tough circumstances in regards to race prejudice and even a tragic death, but succeeded in raising a large family in the city.  I’ve seen many obituaries of the DENT family in the Toledo Blade through even the 2000s and feel that there are probably still a significant amount of descendants of this family in Toledo.  Hopefully they are aware of the story of John and Sara DENT and take great strength and pride from the hard work and suffering of their early black Toledo ancestors who endured such tough times to give them an opportunity to better themselves today.

Will end with the fact that I am related to the DENT family by marriage through a 4th great aunt – Martha JONES DENT who married John DENT Jr., the brother of Julia DENT shown above.  So I was enriched by learning more about their lives while researching the family’s history.

REFERENCES:

In Darkness with God:  The Life of Joseph Gomez, a Bishop of the AME Church,” Annetta Louise Gomez-Jefferson

1850 Census – Household of Sarah SMITH (includes GRUBBS and DENT families) accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1860 Census – Household of John DENT  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1870 Census – Household of John DENT  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1880 Census – Household of John DENT  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1900 Census – Household of Julia DENT THOMPSON  accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

1910 Census – Household of Tena DENT ALEXANDER accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

Death Record of John DENT died 10 May 1890 – Ohio County Death Records 1840-2001 accessed via familysearch.org 9/13/2017

Photo of Julia Dent – accessed via ancestry.com public images 9/11/2017

Cemetery Photo of grave of John DENT – Find-a-Grave – Forrest Cemetery, Toledo, Ohio – accessed 9/11/2017

James Madison BELL – “Bard of the Maumee” – Poet and Friend to John BROWN

James Madison Bell around 1900

Listed within the 1870 Census post was James Madison BELL who after more newspaper digging, I discovered was a well known abolitionist and poet who moved to the city of Toledo in 1865.  Mr. BELL is considered one of the most well known black poets of the 19th century and primarily focused his pieces on the abolitionist cause.

In 1870, Mr. BELL was living in Ward 8 in the City of Toledo. He was called Madison BELL and was listed with his wife Louisa and his 7 children, the youngest named George BELL was born in July of 1870.

James Madison BELL was purportedly born in Gallipolis, Ohio in 1826 which was the location of a large concentration of free people of color in Ohio.  However, on the 1850 Census, Mr. BELL indicated that he was born in Virginia.  A review of a previously mentioned site freeafricanamericans.com lists a free “BELL” family in Virginia and James Madison BELL may have been a descendant of this family and may have come to Ohio as a child.  As was shared in my VINEY-VIRES post many free Virginia blacks moved out of the state in the 1820s and 1830s.  BELL may also have been the child of escaped slaves.  Other than the 1850 Census every other document I located, stated that he was born in Ohio.

Mr. BELL moved from Gallipolis when he was a teenager to Cincinnati, Ohio where he trained as a “plasterer.” Plasterers created the old lathe and plaster walls that are still standing in many old Toledo homes and elsewhere across the country.   He also attended the Cincinnati High School for Colored People at night, which then was associated with Oberlin College.

James later married Louisana SANDERLIN in Cinncinnati.  In the 1850s he moved to the Chatham-Kent area of Ontario, similar to many of my own ancestors who eventually ended up in Toledo.  The emigrationist to Canada are the subject of a lot of my research of late.  There are many theories about why free blacks in the US moved to Canada but the most logical one that many historians agree upon is the fact that the 1840s and 1850s were very hostile to free black people in regards to many laws that were created that placed burdens on black families or that stripped them of their right to vote.  Another reason for the movement of many of these African Americans is that they may have been run away slaves from long before the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was passed.  This law required free states to assist in the capture of runaway slaves and many blacks who had run away and started new lived in “free states” feared they may be re-enslaved so went to Canada in order to be assured of their and their children’s freedom.

For those who were not runaways and whose family was either emancipated via Gradual Emancipation that took place in many northern states, or those who were descendants of indentured servants who were never enslaved, they still faced highly oppressive conditions in the US that contributed to their decision to leave this country.  Many states made free blacks pay a tax just to live in those states, yet would not allow them to sit on a jury, to file a complaint against a white man, or even own a weapon.  In some states,  educating black children was against the law as a result of these discriminatory laws even if they were free born.  States even passed laws stating that free blacks who left the state for 90 days could be legally enslaved upon re-entering the state, which caused a loud outcry from black activist during that era since many of them had family in other states and would face enslavement if they ever moved then needed to come back to visit or take care of relatives.  Many free people of color became fed up with the  discriminatory laws and instead left the states that were most hostile, including Indiana, Pennsylvania (due to the threat of kidnapping primarily), Maryland, and Delaware.  I’ve discovered that a large amount of free people of color moved to the Chatham-Kent area, called “Canada West” in order to be assured that their rights as free men would be protected.  Much of the historical research I attempt on the community of blacks in SE Ontario primarily leads me to sources that focus on escaped slaves and rarely mentions the issues that free blacks faced in the US and what drove them to resettle in Canada, but I’ve discovered that a large amount of the families in the Chatham-Kent area actually were free people prior to moving to that area and not recently escaped slaves.

James Madison BELL  and his family were amongst those who chose to leave Ohio and immigrate to SE Ontario.   During his time in Canada, he hosted John BROWN the famous abolitionist who, today is well know for his failed insurrection attempt at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in 1859.  Prior to instigating the raid, John BROWN stayed at the home of James Madison BELL in Chatham while planning the attack on Harper’s Ferry.  Mr. BELL gave an interview to a journalist in 1889, thirty years after the failed raid occurred.  As is referenced in the article, Mr. BELL lived on Indiana Avenue, in the Pinewood District, currently called “Central City.”  Further information obtained from Census records show he lived at 559 Indiana, which is near the corner of Indiana and City Park Avenues.  He lived across the street from the site of the current Warren AME Church, of which he was a member.  A link to the entire interview is in the reference section of this post, but a snippet of the interview is below.  It was interesting to me to note that prior to beginning the interview, the journalist commented about how well Mr. BELL spoke, something that alluded to the past and continued stereotyping of black Americans via media.

 

 

JOHN BROWN’S RAID.

THE DELIBERATIONS AND PLANS LAID AT CHATHAM, ONT

An Interesting Reminiscence of the First Break Toward Freeing the American Slaves.

A correspondent of the St. Louis Globe Democrat, writing from Toledo, Ohio, says: Among the forty-five persons who attended the secret Convention, at which John Brown presented his famous Provisional Constitution and Ordinances, at Chatham. Ontario, May 8, 1859, was James Madison Bell, a colored man, and at that time a resident of Chatham. Mr. Bell was then a bright, energetic man of about 32 years, and was intimately connected with John Brown during his stay in Ontario, and, in daily intercourse with him, became quite familiar with all of his plans. Mr. Bell is now a resident of this city, and one of its most respected citizens. He resides on Indiana avenue, and conducts a large plastering business. A Globe-Democrat representative called upon Mr. Bell at his home, and found him ready and willing to tell nearly all he knew about John Brown. He is a good scholar, and an easy and interesting conversationalist, using the most correct language, of which he seems to have a perfect control

Only a few questions were needed to start Mr. Bell, and, his memory working as he went along, he seemed to take as much delight in telling as the reporter did in listening.

“I first saw Mr. Brown in the spring of 1859,” commenced Mr. Bell, leaning back in his large arm chair and closing his eves, as if to stimulate thought. “He came to my house at Chatham, Ont. — Canada West we called it then — and presented a letter from Wm. Howard Day, colored, a friend of mine, a graduate of Oberlin, and afterward for some years a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature. “The letter was dated at Toronto, a few days previous, and simply introduced the bearer as John Brown, asking me to do what I could for him during his stay in Canada.

After Brown’s raid, BELL moved to California and lived there until after the war concluded.  He then moved to Toledo and made Toledo his home for the remainder of his life.

After the Civil War, Mr. BELL was active in fighting for the Civil Rights of black Americans.  Contrary to what many people today believe, the  “Civil Rights Movement” started immediately after the Civil War, not in the 20th century.  Those who were ardent abolitionists prior to the war, became heavily active in the fight for civil rights of newly freedmen and women.  Mr. BELL was active at Warren AME Church here in Toledo.  He was the Sunday School Superintendent between 1870 and 1873.  He also traveled the country in the winter “off season” of his construction and plastering work.  He was known as a great orator and often read his poems while delivering speeches about the need for the acknowledgement of the rights of black people in America.   His wife is believed to have passed away in 1874 and Mr. BELL  was listed as a widower by the 1880 Census.  I have yet to find his wife’s death record but will continue to search.

The early pastor of Warren AME Church and subsequent Bishop – BW Arnett convinced Mr BELL  to write down his poems and publish a collection of 27 poems, which was published in 1901, titled “The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell.”  Mr. Bell died in 1902.   He was considered one of the main voices of black America during his lifetime and was one of the most well known black poets in the country.  He was called the “Bard of Maumee” due to his residence being in Toledo.

REFERENCE INFORMATION:

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 60, Number 126, 16 Jan 1889 accessed via California Digital Newspaper Connection on January 20, 2017

Life of James Madison Bell www.encyclopedia.com accessed on January 20, 2017

The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell www.archive.org accessed on January 20, 2017

1850 Census – Household of James Bell – Cincinnati, Ohio Ward 11

 

1870 Census – Colored Population in Toledo (and Surrounding Communities)

I have completed transcribing the 1870 census of the black and colored population of Toledo and its surrounding areas. I want to note that I also went back and reviewed other communities surrounding Toledo, within Lucas County for the transcribing of Census information for the years 1840, 1850, and 1860. Communities included in those census revisions are Maumee, Monclova, Whitehouse, Waynesville, Spencer, Springfield, Sylvania, Oregon, Swanton, Manhattan, and Adams townships. Not all of the revised census transcriptions include black or colored residents, but 1860 specifically included some black/colored residents in Adams and Maumee.

In regards to the 1870 census, the data for this census is below. The number of black and colored families increased in the Lucas County and Toledo area from only 121 families to 246, an increase of over 50%. The total individuals enumerated increased from 269 to 768.

Please note that I did find that some families were enumerated twice in the 1870 Census in the the Toledo area and they are included in the totals as it was a raw transcription. I noticed some duplicate names (particularly the FIELDS family), but since this took multiple days, I did not go back and delete any from the spreadsheet below.

The 1870 Census was the first Census in America that included all formerly enslaved individuals by name. After the Civil War, many black Americans were very transient in nature and traveled across the country looking for relatives and work. During the time that this Census was taken, the Reconstruction Era was still ongoing, and the subsequent Jim Crow/Black Laws had not yet taken effect in the southern part of the United States where a majority of black Americans resided.

Some interesting local history information that can be obtained from the 1870 Census about blacks  in Toledo and its surrounding communities in Lucas County are:

One of Warren AME church’s first documented pastors Bingman ARNETT was enumerated in Toledo, Ward 4. He was 32 years old and was born in Pennsylvania. Two other black men were listed as Ministers or Clergymen but it is unknown which churches, if any they were affiliated with in the Toledo area. They were John WHITE and William WEARING.

George FIELDS had an occupation of “Photographer” and was the city’s first black professional photographer. He originally worked out of a building previously owned by William H. Merrit mentioned in a previous blog post who was involved in the Underground Railroad in Toledo.

Toledo had two black Saloon Keepers – William CARTER and John TILLON/TILDON (also listed as a Restaurant Keeper on the Census but was in the City Directory as a Saloon Keeper). Due to the black population being so small, these business owners catered to a diverse crowd within the city’s Ward 4.

Benjamin TALBOT was listed as a blacksmith in the city and was one of Toledo’s oldest residents.  TALBOT lived in Ward 1, which is now Downtown Toledo and per the article mentioned in the 1862 Race Riot of Toledo, he lived near the corner of Erie and Jefferson Street. His home was ransacked and his furniture destroyed in the 1862 riot. In 1870, he was 76 years old and was originally from Maryland.

Lucy DAY was listed on the Census as a Teacher and can be recognized as one of the first black educators in the city. Lucy DAY lived in Ward 3 with her daughter Florence who was born in Canada. Lucy DAY was born in Ohio.  It was interesting that all of the black/mullatto children eumerated near her were listed as having the occupation of “Scholar.”

My fourth great grandmother – Mary ANDERSON JONES was listed with her children, including my third great grandmother Nancy JONES ROBINSON as living in Washington Township in 1870.  This family, I believe located to Toledo in approximately 1865.  They are my first documented ancestors to have moved to Northwest Ohio and were originally from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania by way of Ross County, Ohio where Nancy JONES ROBINSON was born.  By 1870 Mary’s husband John JONES is suspected to have passed away.  There is reference to a death of a John JONES in the city of Toledo death registers in 1867, but this John JONES cannot be confirmed to be the one who died in 1867 due to the common name.

The most popular surname in the Toledo area was JONES.  There were 24 individuals with the surname JONES who lived in various parts of the cities and in different townships.  It is unknown whether or not they were related.  John JONES, my fourth great grandfather, on previous census records from Ross County, Ohio in 1860 stated that he was from Maryland.  There were no JONES’ in Toledo who stated that they were from Maryland and the only JONES family from Pennsylvania, where Mary ANDERSON JONES hailed was her own household.

Residing In Family # Name Age Gender Race Occupation  Real Estate  Personal Estate Birthplace Father Foreign Born? Mother Foreign Born Married in 1870 Month Attended School Cannot read Cannot Write COMMENTS
Toledo Ward 1 1 Haynes, Mary W. 25 F Black Domestic Servant Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 2 Jones, Della 19 F Mullatto Domestic Servant
Toledo Ward 1 3 Bowen/Rowen, Andrew 30 M Black Domestic Servant Virginia X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Bailey/Railey, George W. 17 M Black Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Charles 48 M Black Teaming Canada X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Charles A. 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Elizabeth 38 F Black Keeping House Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Henry A. 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 5 Garrett, Charlotte 59 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 5 Garrett, Joseph 58 M Mullatto Whitewasher Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Elvia 8 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, George 37 M Mullatto Photographer  $         3,000.00  $              400.00 Georgia
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, George W. 0.75 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Mary 27 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Mary K. 5 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Otis G. 7 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, Eliza 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, Ellen 24 F Mullatto Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, John 5 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, John H 39 M Mullatto Barber  $         1,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Alice 2 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Minister of Warren AME Church mentioned in church history (www.warren-ame.org/church-history/)
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Elizabeth 15 F Mullatto At-Home Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Ella 4 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Ellen 40 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Hiram 40 M Mullatto Drayman  $              200.00 Kentucky X X Enumerated in mullatto household of George Mason – Farmer
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Mary 19 F Mullatto At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Newton 14 M Mullatto At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Squire 17 M Mullatto Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, William W. 6 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Ross, William 30 M Mullatto Blacksmith Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 9 Curtis, Mary 18 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio X
Toledo Ward 1 10 Butler, Anna 17 F Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 1 10 Riley, Mary 14 F Mullatto At-Home Missouri
Toledo Ward 1 10 Robison, Mary 31 F Mullatto At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Benjamin 76 M Mullatto Blacksmith Maryland
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Louis 18 M Mullatto Barber Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Lucinda 22 F Mullatto At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Sarah 51 F Mullatto Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 11 Miles, Emily 28 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 11 Parott/Parett, Mary 50 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Alice 14 F Black At-Home Tennessee X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Betsey 49 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Henry 51 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Julia 18 F Black At-Home Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Maggie 16 F Black At-Home Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Wesley 12 M Black At-Home Tennessee X Enumerated in white household of Emily Birdwell – House Keeper
Toledo Ward 1 13 Gibson, Joshua 22 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X Enumberated in white household of David Smith -lumber dealer
Toledo Ward 1 14 Blannon, Andrew 24 M Black Domestic Servant Virginia Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 1 15 Coup, Henry 34 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 2 16 Johnson, Edward 40 M Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 16 Morrison, George 30 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 17 Lynn, Henry 50 M Black Cooper Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 17 Lynn, Mary 49 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 2 17 Thomas, Mary 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 2 18 Pendleton, Jordan 14 M Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 18 Pendleton, Vina 36 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Henry 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Henry 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Jane 30 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Martha J. 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 20 Hargoes, James M. 30 M Black Laborer Georgia X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 20 Hargoes, Martha 27 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Angeline 33 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Edward 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Frank 9 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 21 Stuart, John 14 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 22 Henry, Jenny 27 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 22 Henry, Thomas P. 37 M Black Barber Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 23 Douglas, Eliza 38 F Black Keeping House District of Columbia Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 2 23 Douglas, Henry 42 M Black Cook Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 24 Parker, Anna 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated in white household of Alonzo Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 2 24 Parker, Frank 16 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Anna 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Henrietta 6 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Victoria 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, William 32 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 26 Price, Mary 19 F Black Servant Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 27 Davis, Hatt 45 M Black Laborer Tennessee Enumerated in white household of Lacken – Farmer
Toledo Ward 2 27 Duma, Annie 21 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 27 Duma, Jennie 24 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 27 Dunning, Frank 45 M Black Laborer Georgia
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), David 15 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Mary 1 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Mary 35 F White Keeping House Ireland X X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Nancy 10 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Thomas 5 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Thomas 40 M Black Rail Road Porter Virginia Enumberated in white household of Cromwell Lloyd -merchant
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), William 18 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Albert 11 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Harry 16 M Black Servant Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Lucy 18 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 30 Newton, Calvin 45 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 30 Newton, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated with black household of Samuel Franklin – Barber
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, Adaline 21 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated with black household of Samuel Franklin – Barber
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, Ed 25 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, George 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, James 16 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, John 38 M White Laborer Germany X X
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, Mary 37 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Arthur 48 M Black Clerk North Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Elias 7 M Black At-Home Wisconsin X
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Isabella 10 F Black At-Home Michigan X
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Lavinia 26 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Alonzo 4 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in white household of Francis Granger – Farmer
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Cora 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Eliza 29 F Black Keeping House Delaware
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Stella 7 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Adelia 10 F Mullatto At-Home Canada X
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Edward 38 M Mullatto Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Mary 45 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 2 36 Davis, Rhoda 39 F Black Servant North Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Albert 16 M Black At-Home Canada Enumerated in white household of PV Brown – Agent
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Isabella 22 F Black At-Home New York
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, John 18 M Black At-Home Michigan
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Sarah 36 F Black Keeping House Maryland Enumerated in white household of Merrill – Justice of the Peace
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, William 36 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 38 Hughes, Malina 40 F Black Keeping House Alabama Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 39 Wilson, Emma 50 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated in whit household of Sophia Benson
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, Francis 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated in white household of Ellen Hunter
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, James 30 F Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, Samuel 3 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 41 Brown, John 40 M Black Barber South Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 41 Brown, Julia 28 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 42 Harris, Henry 25 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 42 Harris, Levinia 22 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Adam 6 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Adam 40 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Anna 45 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Ellen 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Kattie 14 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Susan 9 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 44 Blackburn, Charlotte 38 F Black Keeping House Conneticut
Toledo Ward 2 44 Blackburn, George 40 M Black Cook Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Rachel 65 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Sebastian 60 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Willie 19 M Mullatto Laborer Canada
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, John 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, John 40 M Black Barber Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, Lillia 2 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, Matilda 25 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 2 47 Ackley, Lucy 20 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 47 Ackley, Maggie 29 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Caroline 5 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Eliza 20 F Black Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Emma 7 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, John 32 M Black Blacksmith Alabama
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Andy 16 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Ellen 8 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, James 14 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sally 50 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sam 50 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sammy 12 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 50 Jackson, Moses 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Catherine 55 F White Keeping House  $         3,000.00 Germany X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), George 20 M Black Sailor Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Julia 18 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Mary 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 52 Carlisle, Elizabeth 23 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, Lucy 35 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, William 50 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00  $          1,000.00 Indiana
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, Willis 22 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 54 Gray, Mary 26 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 54 Gray, Thomas 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 55 Smith, Matilda 18 F Black Servant Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Abrahm 39 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Annie 26 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Gerlene 3 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Thomas 16 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 57 Thompson, Hiram 18 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Catherine 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Eliza B 22 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Francis 8 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, J.C. 57 M Black Barber  $         2,000.00 Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Louisa 17 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 59 Pendleton, Lavinia 20 F Black Domestic Servant Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, Frances 23 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, James R 23 M Mullatto Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, Samuel 0.666666667 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio Oct
Toledo Ward 3 61 Wilson, Emily 50 F Mullatto Keeping House  $         1,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Mary 51 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Willis 20 M Black Barber Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Wilson 52 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 63 Green, Susan 10 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 64 Davis, Nancy 22 F Black Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 65 Johnson, Elizabeth 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 65 Johnson, Mary E 4 F Black At-Home Canada
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Addie 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, John 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, John 30 M Black Physician Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Etta 6 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Sarah 29 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Thomas 28 M Mullatto Cook New York
Toledo Ward 3 67 Smith, Carrie 19 F White Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Ada 15 F Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Carter 58 M Mullatto Cook Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Jessy 9 M Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Lucinda 38 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Willie 6 M Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Robinson, Braxton 94 M Black Boarder Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 69 Fearing, Sarah 42 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 69 Fearing, Wm. L 49 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 70 Day, Florence 12 F Black At School Canada X
Toledo Ward 3 70 Day, Lucy S. 35 F Black Teacher Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Charles 12 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Della 10 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Harvey 14 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, James 39 M Mullatto Barber Ohio Enumberated in white household of Robert Smith
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Lilly 3 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Lilly 32 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Mary 5 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Netta 0.166666667 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Robert 8 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 72 Dooms, John 8 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 72 Dooms, Margarett 30 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 73 Logan, John 35 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 74 Slater, Samuel 25 M Black Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, David H 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, Ellent 32 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, Wm 42 M Black Plasterer  $         3,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 75 Harris, Samuel 24 M Black Laborer Canada
Toledo Ward 3 75 Johnson, Marlins 25 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 76 Francis E 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, George 32 M Black Laborer Massachuesetts
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, George H 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, Mary E 20 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 77 Anderson, Nelson 45 F Black Boarder Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Annie 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Charles 9 M Black Scholar Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Eliza 29 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Ellen 7 F Black Scholar Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Isaac 51 M Black Laborer Missouri Enumerated in white household of Emily Birdwell – House Keeper
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Julia 0.166666667 F Black At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Mary 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 79 Jones, Louisa 19 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 79 Speed, Eliza 20 F Black Hair Dresser Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ovals, Lizzie 38 F Black Servant Oiho
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Charles P 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Hester 13 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, John 9 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Julia 15 F Black At-Home Onio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Madilta 34 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Mary 17 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Sam 40 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 81 Chen, James 52 M Black Roofer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Ann 16 F Black Scholar Michigan Enumerated with mullatto household of Thomas Jones – Barber
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Ellen 21 F Black At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Julia 19 F Black At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Mary 40 F Black Servant Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, May 55 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 83 Walbridge, Mary 20 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Aaron 10 M Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Ardilda 16 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Jane 20 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Edward 15 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Eva 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Frederick 7 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Joseph 35 M Black Hotel Waiter New York
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Nettie 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, William 10 M Black At-Home Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Adaliza 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, John 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Joseph 45 M Black Physician Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Mary 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in black household of Wm. Getrell – Plasterer
Toledo Ward 3 87 Cowan, William 22 M Black Servant Pennsylvania Enumerated in white household of Henry H Warren – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 88 Ward, Mary 45 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 89 Ward, Julia 13 F Black Servant Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 3 90 Humphy, Josie 18 F Black Servant Tennessee
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Albert 7 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Ida E 9 F Mullatto At-Home Canada X
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, John E 39 M Mullatto Tailor South Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Manda 4 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Mary 35 F Mullatto Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Myrtle 0.666666667 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Oct Enumerated with black household of Westley Miles – Carpenter
Toledo Ward 3 92 Smith, George 22 M Black In Jail Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 93 Knox, Mary 20 F Black In Jail Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 94 Moore, David 25 M Black In Jail Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 95 Washington, Jno 28 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 96 Washington, Edward 20 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 96 Washington, Mary E 22 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 97 Johnson, Ardella 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 97 Johnson, Henry 30 m Black White Washer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Catharine 30 F Black Keeping House Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Charles A. 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, John W 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Mary E 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Thomas 38 M Black Brick Mason Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Thomas T 0.416666667 M Black At-Home Ohio Jan
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, William E 7 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 99 Toney, Joe 28 M Black Grocer  $         2,000.00  $          1,000.00 Georgia
Toledo Ward 3 100 Benson, Henry 40 M Black Laborer Georgia
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wight, Frederick 35 M Black Laborer Arkansas
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wright, Lucy 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wright, Mary 23 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 3 102 Ackley, Gustavus 22 M Black Laborer New York
Toledo Ward 3 102 Adams, Peter 40 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Adams, Sarah E 47 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 102 Handy, Edward 51 M Black Laborer Delawae
Toledo Ward 3 102 Hossieos, George 24 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 102 Lwson, Emma 16 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Wearing, William 35 M Black Minister Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Williams, Conel 35 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 102 Young, Daniel 26 M Black Brick Mason Delawae
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, Betty E 3 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, John W 13 M Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, John W 29 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania Enumberated in white household of Rob Titus
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, Martha 22 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 104 Walker, Charles 40 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 104 Walker, Eliza 35 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Ellen 50 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Emily 12 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Maria 17 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Augustus 1 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Eli 8 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Mary 31 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Roswell 5 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Thomas 9 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Wiley M. 40 M Mullatto Cook at Hotel  $         1,000.00 North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 107 Walker, Hattie 20 F Black Seamstress Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 107 Walker, Lottie 50 F Black Seamstress Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Dennis 8 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in black household of Stephen Wood – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Garlin 0.166666667 M Black At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Jacob 29 M Black Laborer  $         1,500.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Laurie 26 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, George 24 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, Sarah 22 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, Theodore 1 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 110 Price, James 27 M Black Carpenter  $         2,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 110 Price, Martha 19 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 111 Chase, Allen W 37 M Black Saloon Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 111 Chase, Eliza 28 F Black Keeping House Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Elizabeth 12 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Fanny 9 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, John 3 M Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Mary 1 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Sarah 29 F Black Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Thomas 7 M Black At-Home Canada X X Enumerated in white household of Wm Haskins – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Wm 35 M Black Laborer  $         3,000.00 Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 113 Arnold, John 18 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 113 Pressey, Thomas 15 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 114 Washington, George 18 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 115 Tate, Harry 28 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Hayes, Anna 16 F Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in white household of Henry Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, Annette M 18 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, Elizabeth 49 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, William 50 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 116 Van Brunt, Eddy 15 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 117 Hafler, George R 24 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 117 Highwarden, Jacob 25 M Black Barber Canada
Toledo Ward 3 117 Smith, Wilmot 22 M Black Barber New York
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, Jesse 40 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, Mary 35 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, simon 18 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 119 Rue, Thomas J 30 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 120 Alexander, R. 19 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Anna 1 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Charles 4 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Edward 35 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Minervy 19 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 123 Ward, Sam 40 M Black 1st Cook Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 124 West, William 39 M Black Hotel Porter Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 125 Delaney, Thomas 34 M Black Yard Man Ohoi
Toledo Ward 4 126 Ball, Wm 53 M Black Cook Ohio Lived in white household of Jessy Simon – Restaurant Keeper
Toledo Ward 4 127 Hall, JJ 35 M Black Porter Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 4 128 Grandy, Iser 28 M Black Porter Ohio Enumberated in white household of Henry burch – Farmer
Toledo Ward 4 129 Johnson, Carolina 40 F Black Domestic Servant New York
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Charles 9 M Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Henrietta 43 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Wm 23 M Black Saloon Keeper  $              500.00 North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 130 Highwarden, J. 34 M Black Laborer  ` Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 130 Jackson, John 31 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 130 Johnson, Paul 40 M Black White Washer Alabama
Toledo Ward 4 130 McCown, H. 26 M Black Mill Fireman Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 130 Sly, Bella 24 F Black Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 130 St. Clair, John 38 M Black Laborer South Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 130 Stewart, H 33 M Black Sailor Canada Enumerated in white household of Irwin O Brown – Farmer
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Fred 14 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Hatty 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Jessy 9 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, John 7 M Mullatto Ohio Enumerated in black household of Lewis Thomas – Merchant
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Sarah 36 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Virginia 11 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, W. H 50 M Black Cook at Hotel Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Wallace 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 132 Hart, Julia 69 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 133 Veerman, Carolina 30 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 4 133 Veerman, John 10 M Black X
Toledo Ward 4 134 Jenkins, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 4 134 Jenkins, Robert 46 M Black White Washer  $              700.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Arnett, Bingman 32 M Black Minister Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 4 135 Highwater, Jack 36 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Alice 13 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Hatty 65 F Black Maryland
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Helen 14 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Henrietta 10 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Mary 22 F Black Dress Maker Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Varry 21 F Black Dress Maker Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, William 16 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Wm. 22 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Smith, Willworth 22 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 135 Vina, Charles 23 M Black Engineer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Gusta 9 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Hatty 20 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Mary 47 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Victoria 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Jones, Virginia 38 F Black Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 137 Alexander, Robert 39 M Black Barber Maryland
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Abraham 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, D. R. 44 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, John 14 M Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Lewis 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Margaret 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Robert 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Tanner, Lizzie 19 F White Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 138 Smith, Mary 12 F Black Dress Maker Tennessee
Toledo Ward 4 139 Joyner, James 20 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Charlotte 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Lewis 33 M Black Merchant North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Lewis 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Mary 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Rosa 6 F Black Ohio Enumerated in white householdWm Whitney – music instrument dealer  (look up Whitney high school)
Toledo Ward 4 140 Laws, Mary 17 F Black Domestic Servant Alabama
Toledo Ward 4 140 Montgomery, Eddy 40 M White Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 140 Tildon, Jenny 40 F Black Delaware
Toledo Ward 4 140 Tildon, John 40 M Black Restaurant  $         4,000.00  $          2,000.00 Delaware
Toledo Ward 4 141 Anderson, Ann 4 F Black Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 141 Anderson, John 23 M Black Cook & Eating at Hotel Tennessee
Toledo Ward 4 141 Andeson, Lizzie 27 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated in black household of Marshall Peters – Laborer
Toledo Ward 4 142 Brown, Ann 38 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 142 Brown, James 41 M Black Steward at Hotel Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 143 Jones, James 49 M Black Yard Man Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 144 Van Brunt, T 40 M Black Hotel Waiter Missouri
Toledo Ward 5 145 Williams, Simon 42 M Black Yard Man Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 146 Brice, Sam 26 M Black Hotel Porter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 147 Price, Jery 30 M Black Hotel Porter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 148 Jones, John 17 M Black Bell Boy Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 149 Arnold, Albert 16 M Black Bell Boy Ohio Enumerated in Lucas County Infirmary *
Toledo Ward 5 150 Tillon, John 58 M Black Keeps Restaurant  $         8,000.00  $          1,000.00 Delaware X X Enumerated in Lucas County Infirmary *
Toledo Ward 5 150 Tillon, Sarah 40 F Black House Keeper Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 5 151 Brown, Mary 16 F Mullatto Cook Delaware
Toledo Ward 5 152 Brown, Calvin 18 M Black Waiter at Hotel Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 153 Miller, James 16 M Black Works on Tug Boat Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 5 154 Harris, Isaac 42 M Black Hotel Cook South Carolina
Toledo Ward 5 155 Davis, Manus 48 M Black Hotel Cook Florida
Toledo Ward 5 156 Douglas, Lewis 20 M Black Hotel Running Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 157 Cowel, John 22 M Black Omnibus Driver Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 158 Brown, James 25 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 159 Williams, Ben 25 M Black Hotel Waiter New York
Toledo Ward 5 160 Means, James 22 M Mullatto Hotel Waiter Virginia
Toledo Ward 5 161 Cannon, John 26 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 162 Motten, William 20 M Black Hotel Waiter Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 163 Smith, Thos. 22 M Black Hotel Waiter Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 164 Hartnell, James 21 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 165 Cox, Arthur 22 M Mullatto Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 166 Schaffer, Harry 20 M Mullatto Bell Boy Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 167 Whitfred, John 21 M Black Barber Ohio Enumerated in white household of James McCabe – Weaver
Toledo Ward 5 168 Washington, Ed 22 M Black Barber Ohio Enumerated with white household of Winslow Isherwood – Man of Tobacco
Toledo Ward 5 169 Bolden, Levy 22 M Black Hotel Porter Alabama
Toledo Ward 5 170 Fergeson(?), Edward 15 M Black Works in Hotel Canada Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 5 170 Fergeson(?), Susan 22 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Charly 9 M Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Edward 68 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Lenice 8 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Nancy 6 F Black Canada
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Olivia 14 F Black Canada X Enumerated in white household of Wm Hamon – Laborer
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Susan 11 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Eveline 51 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Henry 50 M Black Brick Mason  $            800.00 Indiana
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Stony 17 M Black Tailor Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Frank 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Jerry 27 M Mullatto Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Maggie 25 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Anna 8 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Emory 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Georgianna 29 F Black Keeping House Mississippi
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Jane 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, John N 37 M Black Clergyman  $         3,000.00  $              150.00 Virginia Enumerated in black household of John Tildon – restauranteur
Toledo Ward 7 174 Cramer, Susan 50 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X x Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 7 174 Cramer, William 50 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X Enumerated in white household of Henry Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 7 174 Walker, William 30 M Black White Washer Kentucky X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 7 175 Craig, Ambrose 83 M Black At-Home North Carolina
Toledo Ward 7 175 Craig, Missouri 22 F Black Seamstress Canada
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Elvira 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Fanny 17 F Black At-Home Indiana X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Mary 13 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Olivia 35 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Samuel W 38 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Albert 7 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, George 25 M Black Vessel Cook Indiana X X
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, George 4 M Black Ohio Enumerated in white household of Mary Calder – Keeping House
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Levi 10 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Samuel 12 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Susan 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rodes, Minnie 1 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Horace 9 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Mary 28 F Mullatto Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Thomas 32 M Mullatto Carpenter  $         1,000.00  $              150.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macy, Elenora 3 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Perrin, Virginia 18 F Mullatto At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 178 Ward, Anna 35 F Black At-Home
Toledo Ward 7 178 Washington, George 40 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 178 Washington, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 179 McCoul, Mary 14 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Henry 29 M Black Laborer  $         1,000.00 Virginia X X Enumerated in black household of Sam Ward – Cook
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, James 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Martha 26 F Black Keeping House Alabama X X
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Wm 0.25 M Black Ohio May Enumerated in white household of Wm Hamon – Laborer
Toledo Ward 7 181 Nelson, Caroline 45 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 181 Nelson, John 48 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 182 Mitcherson, Ella F 26 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Toledo Ward 7 182 Mitcherson, Smith 27 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 7 183 Getsel, David 47 M Black Plasterer  $         1,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 183 Getsel, Johanna 34 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Alice 9 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Edward 70 M Mullatto Brick Mason  $         1,800.00 Virginia Enumerated with mullatto household of Thomas Macey – Carpenter
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Martha 40 F Mullatto Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Martha 11 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Carey 2 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), John 36 M Black White Washer  $              400.00 Arkansas
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), John 0.75 M Black Ohio Sept
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Lizzie 24 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Lizzie 6 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Minnie 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Peachy 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Wm 34 M Black Brick Layer  $            600.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Wm 0.5 M Black Ohio Feb
Toledo Ward 8 187 Miles, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 187 Miles, Wm M 30 M Black Plasterer  $              200.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Andrew 12 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Entorah 20 F Black Seamstress Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, George 0.833333333 M Black Ohio July
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Louisa 45 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, M S 16 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Madison 47 M Black Plasterer  $            800.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Thomas 15 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Wm 18 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Alvey 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Ellen 12 F Black Alabama X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Frank 8 M Black Alabama X
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Laura 13 F Black Alabama X Enumerated in white household of George Watson
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Westley 42 m Black Carpenter  $            800.00 Kentucky Enumerated in white household of C.W. Ferguson – Farmer
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, James 35 M Black Laborer New Jersey
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, Jenny 3 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Andy 40 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Robert 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Susan 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 192 Cole, Anna 28 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 8 192 Cole, John 36 M Black Laborer  $            500.00 Canada
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Bella 22 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Louisa 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Maggie 6 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Richard 2 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Robert 27 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Helen 10 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, J.C. 57 M Black Barber Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Kate A 15 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Louisa 17 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, Ann 3 F Mullatto Ohio Enumerated in black household of Carter Ferguson – Cook
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, John 40 M Mullatto Saloon Keeper  $         1,800.00  $              250.00 New York Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, Julia 33 F Mullatto Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Lizzie 27 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Sarah 7 F Black Michigan X
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Vernal 30 M Black Hotel Waiter  $            600.00 Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Albert 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Henry 31 M Black Laborer New York
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Sarah 29 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ann 46 F Black Keeping House Maryland
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ellen 15 F Black Maryland Enumerated in mullatto household of Hiram Lee – Drayman
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ester 0.416666667 F Black Ohio Jan Enumerated in white household of George Reynolds – Proprietor of Flour Mill (Reynolds Rd??)
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Henry 25 M Black Laborer Maryland Enumerated with lawyer Frank Hurd
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Mark 17 M Black Laborer Maryland
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Aussy 18 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Ellen 14 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, George 19 M Black Teamster Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Wm 10 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Turner, James 40 M Black Laborer Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 199 Turner, Rachel 45 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 200 Coleman, Amy 40 F Black Keeping House South Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 200 Coleman, James 42 M Black Laborer South Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Bella 18 F Black Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Flemming 60 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Sarah 53 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 201 Johnson, Sam 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky Enumerated in white household of  W.W. Brainard – lumber merchant
Toledo Ward 8 201 Welles, Sophia 16 F Black Domestic Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, C.E. 38 F Black Keeping House New Jersey
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, G.B. 18 M Black Laborer New York Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, Henry M 16 M Black Horsler Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, J.B. 44 M Black Hotel Waiter  $              200.00 New York
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, John T 14 M Black Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, Wm S. 11 M Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 8 203 Rosedale(?), Joseph 12 M Black Delaware
Toledo Ward 8 203 Rosedale(?), Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Delaware
Toledo Ward 8 204 Hall, Toasey 19 M Black Domestic Servant Kentucky Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Ann 21 F Mullatto Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Ellen 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Sam 6 M Mullatto Ohio Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Thomas 30 M Mullatto Barber  $              200.00 North Carolina Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Walter 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Adams 204 Marshall, Ann 10 F Mullatto New York
Adams 204 Marshall, James 6 M Mullatto New York
Adams 205 Fields, Henry 15 M Mullatto Kentucky
Adams 205 Fields, John 4 M Mullatto Ohio Twin
Adams 205 Fields, Mary 29 F Mullatto Keeping House Indiana
Adams 205 Fields, Mary 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Adams 205 Fields, Wm. 40 M Mullatto Farmer  $          1,000.00 Kentucky
Adams 206 Jones, John 30 M Black Laborer Massachuesetts
Adams 207 Cunningham, Wm 18 M Black Horsler Kentucky
Adams 208 Snotwon, Arebelle 16 F Black Not Noted
Adams 208 Snotwon, Lincoln 7 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snotwon, Minerva 14 F Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, G. Grant 5 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, George 10 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, Henry 10 M Black Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Jane 38 F Black Keeping House Not Noted Enumberated in black household of Edward Points – laborer
Adams 208 Snowton, Joe 40 M Black Farmer  $         4,600.00  $          1,200.00 Not Noted Mentioned as victim in 1862 race riot in Toledo
Adams 208 Snowton, John 20 M Black Laborer Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Joseph 18 M Black Laborer Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Royal 7 M Black Not Noted
Manhatten 209 Norris, Jesse 44 M Black Plasterer Virginia X X
Manhatten 209 Norris, Rebecca 42 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X
Manhatten 210 Cunningham, Edward 50 M Black Farmer  $              140.00 Virginia X X
Manhatten 210 Cunningham, Mary 80 F Black Keeping House Virginia X
Manhatten 211 Cromwell, Hannah 52 F Black Keeping House Canada X X Enumerated with John G Shattuck auctuioneer
Manhatten 211 Cromwell, Thomas 55 M Black Farmer Ohio
Manhatten 212 Johnson, Albert 35 M Mullatto Farm Hand Virginia
Manhatten 213 Williams, Edward 50 M Black Farmer  $         1,500.00  $              100.00 Kentucky X X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Emelie 39 F Black Keeping House Ohio X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Lincoln 8 M Black At-Home Michigan
Manhatten 213 Williams, Sarah 18 F Black At-Home Indiana X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Virginia 10 F Black At-Home Michigan
Manhatten 214 Hall, Anthony 34 M Mullatto Laborer Maryland
Manhatten 214 Hall, Catharine 32 F Mullatto Keeping House New York
Manhatten 214 Hall, Claude H 2 M Mullatto New York
Manhatten 214 Hall, Geoge F 0.25 M Mullatto Ohio Feb
Manhatten 215 Baker, William 16 M Black At-Home Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Bettie 6 F Black Ohio
Manhatten 215 Mason, George 48 M Black Farmer Virginia X X
Manhatten 215 Mason, Hattie 0.25 F Black Ohio May
Manhatten 215 Mason, Julia 13 F Black At-Home Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Mary 37 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Mary 3 F Black Ohio
Manhatten 216 Flatshaw, Thomas 21 M Black Laborer Maryland Twin
Manhatten 216 Lyons, William 18 M Black Laborer Maryland
Manhatten 216 Peters, David 21 M Black Laborer Virginia X X
Manhatten 216 Peters, Jan 57 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated in white household of John Denny
Manhatten 216 Peters, Lavina 15 F Black At-Home Virginia
Manhatten 216 Peters, Marshall 64 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Virginia X X
Manhatten 216 Peters, Mary 18 F Black At-Home Virginia X Twin
Manhatten 216 Peters, Rose 17 F Black At-Home Virginia X
Manhatten 217 Powers, Elizabeth 45 F Black Keeping House Tennessee X X
Manhatten 217 Powers, John 66 M Black Laborer Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Powers, William 24 M Black Laborer Indiana X X Enumerated at work
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Betsey 18 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania Enumerated at work
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Frances 46 M Black Farmer  $              500.00 Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Frank 16 M Black Sailor Pennsylvania
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Louise 47 F Black Keeping House Maryland X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Margaret 12 F Black At-Home Canada
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Prisilla 79 F Black At-Home Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Richard 19 M Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, William 14 M Black At-Home Canada
Maumee Ward 1 218 Royster, Moses 21 M Black Laborer North Carolina X X
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Elizabeth 27 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, George 26 M Mullatto Laborer Ohio
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Georgiana 3 F Mullatto Ohio Enumerated at work
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Mary E 0.5 F Mullatto Ohio Dec
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, William 10 M Mullatto Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Anna 4 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Della 5 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Eliza 67 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated in white household of G. Walbridge (female)
Monclova 220 Lee, Elizabeth 3 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, George 70 M Black Farm Hand Virginia X X
Monclova 220 Lee, Laura 21 F Black Virginia X
Monclova 220 Lee, Louisa 23 F Black Keeping House Virginia X
Monclova 220 Lee, Mary 21 F Black Virginia X X
Oregon 221 Dent, C. B. 2 F Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, C. E 6 F Black Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, George 10 M Black Kentucky Enumerated with black household of William Cramer – Laborer
Oregon 221 Dent, John 48 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, John 14 M Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, Julia 13 F Black Kentucky
Oregon 221 Dent, L. J. 8 F Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, Minnie 4 F Black Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, S. J. 37 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Springfield 222 Thompson, Clara 4 F Black Ohio
Springfield 222 Thompson, H.H. 28 M Black Farm Laborer  $              400.00 Ohio X
Springfield 222 Thompson, Jan 32 F Black Keeping House Canada
Springfield 222 Thompson, John 4 M Black Ohio
Springfield 223 Thompson, Harriet 19 F Black Keeping House Canada X
Springfield 223 Thompson, Isa A 0.333333333 F Black Ohio Feb
Springfield 223 Thompson, John W 23 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio X
Springfield 224 Doshan, Frank 4 M Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Jan 30 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Springfield 224 Doshan, Jan 7 F Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Paul 2 M Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Robert 55 M Black Farm Laborer Kentucky X X
Swanton 225 Hays, Lewis 5 M Black Michigan Enumerated at work
Swanton 225 Hays, Louisa 32 F Black Keeping House Canada
Swanton 225 Hays, Silas 1 M Black Ohio Enumerated in hotel of John C Ruttlege
Swanton 225 Hays, William 45 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Missouri
Swanton 225 Hays, William Jr. 12 M Black Canada X X
Sylvania 226 Garrison, William H 38 M Black Barber New York
Sylvania 227 Manual, Isaac 1 M Black Michigan X
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Anna 20 F Black Keeping House Canada
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Robert 6 M Black Canada X
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Victoria 2 F Black Michigan X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Anderson 43 M Black Laborer Miss X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Augustus 3 M Black Canada
Sylvania 228 Harper, Corren 11 M Black Canada X X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Henrietta 4 F Black Michigan
Sylvania 228 Harper, James 4 M Black Ohio Enumerated in black household of Ira Hurst – Farmer (wife Elizabeth was said to be his daughter)
Sylvania 228 Harper, Matilda 24 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 228 Harper, Wallace 1 M Black Ohio
Sylvania 229 Nathan, Joseph Jr 32 M Black Works in Stave Factor Pennsylvania
Sylvania 229 Nathan, Joseph Sr 58 M Black Employed in ___  $              100.00 Pennsylvania
Sylvania 230 Wood, Albert H 22 M Black Works in Stave Factor Michigan
Sylvania 230 Wood, Theodore 24 M Black Works in Stave Factor  $            130.00 Michigan Enumerated at work
Sylvania 231 Harris, Thomas 55 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia X X
Sylvania 232 Johnson, Cornelia 13 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Sylvania 232 Johnson, David 53 M Black Farmer  $            400.00 Kentucky
Sylvania 232 Johnson, Delia 34 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 233 Jackson, Henry 20 M Black Farm Laborer Canada
Sylvania 233 Wood, Amanda 55 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Sylvania 233 Wood, Stephen 58 M Black Farmer  $            400.00  $              150.00 New York X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Bentley 8 M Black Ohio X Enumerated at work
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Eleanor 10 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elizabeth 12 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elizabeth 33 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elsie 6 F Black Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ezella 4 F Black Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ira 13 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ira 48 M Black Farmer  $            500.00  $              200.00 Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Nellie 3 F Black Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Nora 0.416666667 F Black Ohio Jan
Sylvania 234 Wheeler, Amos 65 M Black Living with Daughter District of Columbia
Washington 235 Johnson, Iva 36 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Washington 235 Johnson, James A 18 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio X
Washington 235 Johnson, Lewis P 39 M Black Farm Laborer  $            300.00  $              100.00 Vermont Enumerated at work
Washington 235 Johnson, Theresa 8 F Black Ohio
Washington 235 Johnson, Wm W 15 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Washington 236 Griffin, Chas 30 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia
Washington 237 Pyatte, Solomon 22 M Black Farm Laborer South Carolina
Washington 238 Jones, Thomas 19 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia
Washington 239 Jones, Frances 9 F Black Pennsylvania
Washington 239 Jones, Martha 18 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania X X
Washington 239 Jones, Mary 49 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania X
Washington 239 Jones, Nancy 10 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Washington 240 Blackwell, Henry 30 M Black Farm Laborer Tennessee
Washington 240 Griffeth, Charles 28 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio
Washington 241 Osburn, Anderson 48 M Black Farm Laborer  $              100.00 Kentucky
Washington 241 Osburn, Margaret 1 F Black Ohio
Washington 241 Osburn, Rachel 37 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Washington 241 Osburn, Rosanna 9 F Black Arkansas
Washington 241 Osburn, Sarah 12 F Black At-Home Arkansas X
Washington 241 Osburn, Theodore 3 M Black Ohio
Washington 242 Maynes, Alex 24 M Black Gardner  $         9,000.00  $              100.00 Georgia X
Washington 242 Maynes, Emma 24 F Black Keeping House Vermont
Washington 243 Christianson, L. 27 M Black Farm Laborer Tennessee
Washington 244 Cromwell, Wm 20 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio
Waterville 245 McCabe, John 30 M Black Laborer Missouri
Waynesville 246 Curtis, Abraham 59 M Black Kentucky X X
Waynesville 246 Curtis, Eliza 43 F Black Indiana X X
Total Number of Individuals 768
Total Number of Households 246
Number labled “Black” 644
Number labeled “Mullatto” 117
Number labeled “White” 6
Number of Mixed Race Families (white wife) 2
Number of Mixed Race Families (white husband) 1
First Most Popular Surname (Jones) including
one of my Jones families
24
Second Most Popular Surname (Johnson) 17
Numer of individuals who could not read/write 53
Number of individuals in Jail (David Moore, George Smith
and Mary Knox)
3
Number of children who attended school within the year 69
Average Age 24
Average Age of Males 25
Average Age of Females 22
Number of Females 371
Number of Males 397
Age of Oldest Male (Braxton Robinson) 94
Age of Oldest Female (Mary Cunningham) 80
Age of Youngest Male (Garlin Lee) 1 month
Age of Youngest Female (Julia Harris) 1 month
Toledo Residents 604
Sylvania Residents 33
Manhattan (North End) Residents 41
Swanton Residents 5
Monclova Residents 8
Oregon (East Side) Residents 9
Maumee Residents 6
Adams Residents 19
Washington Residents 25
Springfield Residents 12
Waynesville Residents 2
Waterville Residents 1
Value of Real Estate  $   73,430.00
Value of Personal Estates  $   12,440.00
Birthplace of AL 9
Birthplace of AR 4
Birthplace of Canada 48
Birthplace of CT 1
Birthplace of DE 9
Birthplace of DC 2
Birthplace of FL 1
Birthplace of GA 6
Birthplace of Germany 2
Birthplace of IL 4
Birthplace of IN 23
Birthplace of KY 81
Birthplace of LA 3
Birthpalce of MD 18
Birthplace of MA 2
Birthplace of MI 18
Birthplace of MS 2
Birthplace of MO 5
Birthplace of NJ 2
Birthplace of NY 19
Birthplace of NC 22
Birthplace of OH 330
Birthplace of PA 36
Birthplace of SC 11
Birthplace of TN 12
Birthplace of VT 2
Brithplace of VA 69
Birthplace of WI 1
Not noted birthplace 15
Occupation of Barber 32
Occupation of Bellboy 3
Occupation of Blacksmith 3
Occupation of Brick Mason/Layer 5 NOTE:  This was a wealthy demographic with real estate valued at $3200)
Occupation of Carpenter 3 NOTE: This was a wealthy demographic with real estate valued at $6800)
Occupation of Clergy/Minister 3 NOTE:  First pastor of Warren AME church included
Occupation of Cook 19
Occupation of Clerk 1
Occupation of Cooper 1
Occupation of Domestic Servant 39
Occupatoin of Drayman 1
Occupation of Dress Maker 3
Occupation of Engineer 1
Occupation of Farmer 10 NOTE:  This was the wealthiest demographic with real estate valued at $16400
Occupation of Farm Laborer 16
Occupation of Grocer 1
Occupation of Hair Dresser (female) 1
Occupation of Horsler 2
Occupation of Hotel Worker 21
Occupation of Restauranteur 1
Occupation of Laborer 85
Occupation of Physician 2
Occupation of Photographer 1
Occupation of Plasterer 6
Occupation of Porter 2
Occupation of Railroad Porter 1
Occupation of Roofer 1
Occupation of Sailor 3
Occupation of Saloonkeeper 2
Occupation of Seamstress (females) 4
Occupation of Tailor (males) 2
Occupation of Teacher (Lucy Day) 1
Occupation of Teamster 2
Occupation of Vessel Cook 1
Ocupationof White Washer 6
Occupation of Stave Factory Worker 3
Occupation of Tug Boat Laborer 1
Occupation of Yard Man 3

 

Early Black Toledoans 1850 Census

After creating the post “Early Black Toledoans 1840 Census” I became interested in reviewing other early census records of NW Ohio and SE Michigan.

I perused both the 1820 Census and 1830 Census of Monroe County, Michigan Territory due to Toledo, prior to its official formation, being a part of Michigan until the conclusion of the “Toledo War” and the it subsequently became an Ohio city.

I also decided to look up the 1850 Census and see if I could find more black/colored residents who may have been listed on 1840 like the NICHOLS/NICKOLAS family of 1840. I’ll write more about (very interesting) findings on the 1820 and 1830 censuses on a later post and after additional information, but wanted to share the data I pulled from the 1850 Census on this entry.

The 1850 Census was the first which listed out every household member by name and age. For those who worked (particularly males) it also listed an occupation.

Other information found on the 1850 Census was the state or origin of every resident, whether or not the resident was married in 1850, whether the resident could read and write, or if the resident attended school that year.

I created a spreadsheet of the black/colored families listed on the 1850 census, which I will post on this blog in the future along with the spreadsheet I made for 1840. Hopefully this will give other genealogist and local historians more information regarding the earliest black Toledoans or just provide some interesting reading material.

On the 1850 Census there were 43 black/colored families listed with a total of 121 residents within those families.

As on the 1840 Census, not all people were actually African American, many were multi-racial and there were whites who had married a black spouse who I included due to them being a part of the 43 families.

During this time period, the City of Toledo was not the same size and distance that it is today, as such, I included different areas that now make up the city. I was unsure of a few of the areas that were listed and I will have to research them more and if there are any changes to this data in the future I will update this post.

Some raw information from the 1850 Census is as follows:

RACIAL/GENDER DESCRIPTION OF RESIDENTS

  • There were 54 resident labeled as “black”
  • There were 62 residents labeled as “mullatto”
  • There were 5 residents who were labeled as “white” who lived with black or mullatto heads of households
  • There were 50 females
  • There were 71 males

AGE OF RESIDENTS

  • The average age of all individuals was 21
  • The average age of males was 19.26
  • The average age of females was 23.14
  • The oldest male on the 1850 census was William NICKOLAS  who was 59 years old
    • Remember, he was on the 1840 Census as well as a black head of household
  • There were two females who were the oldest females – Peggy CRUMMEL and Alice LUCAS were both 60 years old
    • Note – There was a white male with the surname CROMWELL on the 1840 Census who was tallied as having a black female aged 36-55 living with him in his home.  Peggy CRUMMEL may have been a part of the CROMWELL household of 1840.
  • There were two males who were the youngest male babies in Toledo – James AMBROS and James KINES(HINES) were both 8 months old
  • The youngest female was Sarah WILSON who was also 8 months old

WARD/TOWNSHIP OF RESIDENTS

On the 1850 Census the residents were listed by residence in Wards and in certain townships that now make up the City of Toledo.  In 1850 there were 4 Wards.  Townships which are included in this tally are Manhattan (now North Toledo/The Old North End), Washington Township, Port Lawrence (downtown), and Oregon (includes current Oregon and East Toledo).

  • Ward 1 contained 24 residents
  • Ward 2 contained 22 residents
  • Ward 3 contained 0 residents
  • Ward 4 contained 67 residents
  • Manhattan contained 8 residents
  • Oregon contained 0 residents
  • Washington Township contained 0 residents
  • Port Lawrence contained 0 residents

BIRTHPLACE OF RESIDENTS

There were 17 states/countries listed that residents stated they were from.  Please note that during this era, Toledo was a part of the Underground Railroad system and as such, many black or mullato (mixed with black or lighter skinned) residents who may have been escaped slaves, would have been hesitant to share their state of origin for fear of being recaptured and sent back to slavery.  Other research material I have read regarding Ohio and Pennsylvania relatives indicates that lying about their state of origin was very common for escaped slaves and that many of them would not provide a location.  This can be seen in Toledo’s black residents of 1850 being that 11 individuals stated that their place of origin was “unknown.”  Residents on later census records I have reviewed changed their states of origin on later census dates.

Below are only listed the top 10 places that black/mullatto residents stated that they were from:

  • 31 individuals stated they were born in Ohio (this included a large amount of children/babies)
  • 11 individuals stated they were born in New York (this included the large NICHOLS/NICKOLAS family)
  • 9 individuals stated they were born in Canada
  • 9 individuals stated they were born in Michigan
  • 8 individuals stated they were born in Virginia
  • 7 individuals stated they were born in Tennessee
  • 7 individuals stated they were born in Pennsylvania
  • 6 individuals stated they were born in North Carolina
  • 6 individuals stated they were born in Indiana

Some locations of note are as follows:

  • 1 individual stated that he was born in Massachuesetts
    • His name was Harvey FIELDS, a barber by trade
    • The 3 oldest FIELDS children (William, Julius, and Robert) were the only black/colored children who attended school in 1850.  They were listed as born in Canada.
  • 1 individual stated that she was born in Ireland
    • Her name was Mary Ann CAMPBELL a white woman married to James CAMPBELL a black man from Virginia working as a Drayman
    • They had 3 mullatto children on the census (Castillia, 7; William, 5; and Mahala, 2)

OCCUPATIONS OF RESIDENTS

As stated above, women’s occupations were usually not described on early census records unless they were heads of household.  Though there were some single women who would have been considered heads of household in Toledo, their occupations were not listed.  Not all of the men had occupations listed either even though in 1850 all men aged 15 and older should have had their occupations listed.  Two men had occupations listed as “none” – George FRENCH an 18 year old mullatto and William NICHOLS/NICKOLAS who was the oldest man in the black/colored community in Toledo in 1850.

  • 11 men stated that they were a Barber
    • Black/mullatto men who were barbers during this period had a much higher rate of socio-economic mobility due to being businessmen.  They were some of the most influential and well off members of the black community though not all had the same amount of prestige.
  • 6 men stated that they were a Cook
  • 4 men stated that they were a Waiter
  • 3 men stated that they were a Drayman
  • 3 men stated that they were a Laborer
  • 3 men stated that they were a Teamster
  • 2 men stated that they were a Porter
  • 2 men stated that they were a Painter
  • 1 man stated that he was a Cooper

Some of the more interesting occupations only had one man who worked in that position:

  • 1 man stated he was a Musician
  • 1 man stated that he was a “Reseller of Old Clothes”
  • 1 man stated that he was a Store Maker
  • 1 man stated that he was a “Recef”
    • I have seen this occupation before on old census records but don’t know what it is so I will have to do some more research on this one
  • 1 man stated that he was a “Gurny”
    • I have also seen this one but don’t know what it was.  Information I have come across inclines me to believe that a Gurny was a man who carried things around or was a delivery man of some sort

Some other interesting items taken from this research was that the most popular surname amongst Toledo’s black/colored population was WILSON.  There were 2 households with the surname WILSON.  The second most populous was NICHOLS/NICKOLAS as was on the previous 1840 census.  There were 4 households with the surname NICHOLS/NICKOLAS.

The lone black/mullatto family that lived in Manhattan/North Toledo were called the LEBLEW family.  I am thinking that this is a mis-spelling and it may have been a French name.  The male head of household’s name was Arvill/Orville and he was a mullatto who stated he was from Canada.  He could not read or write.  He was married to a white woman named Jane who stated she was from Michigan.  Their household included 6 children who were labeled as both white and mullatto.  Many times the skin color of the individual dictacted whether or not a census taker labeled an individual a particular race.  The older children of the family were labeled as “white” – Margaret, 15; Mary, 12, and Cyril, 10.  The younger children were all labeled as “mullatto” – Tabatha, 8; Francis, 5; Catharine, 2.  The older children may have had lighter skin than the younger children or may have had a different father who was white.

One individual would not provide their first name.  His last name was DEASE and he was a Cook.  He stated he was born in “unknown.”  His wife – Celia DEASE provided her name and that she was born in Ohio.  Mr. DEASE may have been a runaway slave hesitant to give out his information.  Mrs. DEASE, due to being born in Ohio was more than likely free born so would not have had to fear the release of her name like her husband.

There was a MANLY family listed as well, which was very interesting being that the same family looks to have become “white” by the 1860 Census.  In 1850 the MANLY family, living in Ward 2 of Toledo was headed by “mullatto” Levi MANLY and his wife Sarah MANLY with their 4 children.  By 1860 Levi MANLY was living in Springfield and was a farmer and was listed as “white.”  The entire family was labeled as “mullatto” in 1850 by in 1860 they were “white.”

UPDATE:  Another interesting tidbit regarding this census is the entry for James E. FRANKLIN and his wife Clarkie FRANKLIN.  The information found stated that Clarkie FRANKLIN was initially Cynthia PETTIFORD and that she married James FRANKLIN on July 12, 1834 in Wake County, North Carolina.  James E. FRANKLIN stated he was from North Carolina.  He was 39 years old in 1850 and was working as a Carpenter.  He lived in Ward 1.  Additional reading for pleasure on the Afrigeneas website stated  about this family as follows:

James E. Franklin & his wife Cynthia Pettiford were married in Wake County, NC per mar. bond dated 12 July 1834. By 1850, they resided in Toledo, Ohio. Three known descendants are Anne (1839), Bill (1856) and Sarah (1857).

Cynthia’s father William Pettiford served in the Revolutionary War

Another interesting tidbit on this census for me personally was that there was a WHITFIELD family on the 1850 Census.  As indicated in a previous post, I have a line of WHITFIELDs on my maternal side.  I am not sure if this earlier line of WHITFIELDs are related to me and more digging will be necessary.  My early ancestor Elias WHITFIELD may have come to Toledo due to having a relative already living in the area.  The 1850 WHITFIELDs were headed by John WHITFIELD and his wife Hannah.  Hannah and the oldest of the WHITFIELD children in 1850 were all born in Canada.  John stated that he was born in Virginia but he may not have told the truth if he were an escaped slave.  I have done some earlier vital records searches on the WHITFIELD family looking up my known family members and I did find out that two of the 1850 WHITFIELD children died and were buried in Toledo.  Jacob and James WHITFIELD were the only twins in the black/colored community of Toledo in 1850 and were 4 years old at the time.  Information I have found has shown that Jacob WHITFIELD was one of the known Civil War soldiers from Lucas County, Ohio.

Some information about his service is below:

Jacob Whitfield was the third child born to John and Hannah Whitfield in 1846 in Ohio. In 1850, Whitfield was residing in Toledo, Ohio, with his parents and four other siblings.

At the age of 18, Whitfield enlisted on September 8, 1863, in Lucas County. He was mustered in on September 20, 1863, at Camp Delaware, Ohio. He was described at 5′2″ with black hair and eyes. He was a laborer.

In November and December 1864 Whitfield was hospitalized and entitled to back pay and a bounty. From January to August 1865, he was detached to the division’s ambulance train. He was mustered out on September 20, 1865 having received his last pay on that April. Whitfield was due a $100 bounty, and owed a sutler $35.

There is no further information about Whitfield after he was discharged. He possibly died in June 1866 and was buried in Forrest Cemetery in Toledo, Ohio. Plot: section OC, lot 39, grave 199.

 

UPDATE:  January 2017 – there were no updates to this Census for additional persons with inclusion of different areas referenced in 1870 Census post.  However, notes regarding some individuals listed are as follows:

Toledo Ward 2 15 Price, B. A. 35 M Black Musician Illinois Mentioned in Warren AME History (http://warren-ame.org/church-history/)
Toledo Ward 4 19 Rice, Henry 15 M Black Waiter unknown Mentioned in Warren AME History (http://warren-ame.org/church-history/)
Toledo Ward 4 29 Richmond, Alfred 30 M Mullatto Barber Tennessee Mentioned in Warren AME History (http://warren-ame.org/church-history/)

 

Below is a copy of the spreadsheet for the 1850 Census:

Family# Name Age Gender Race Occupation Birthplace Attended School Cannot Read Condition Ward/Township
1 Hall, William 26 M Mullatto Cook Unknown Ward 1
1 Hall, Eliza 37 F Mullatto New York Ward 1
2 Washington, Eli 0.67 M Mullatto Ohio Ward 1
2 Washington, Estera (?) 3 M Mullatto Ohio Ward 1
2 Washington, Henry 21 M Black Barber Unknown Ward 1
2 Washington, Josephine 21 F Mullatto Michigan Ward 1
3 Stanton, Nancy J 24 F Mullatto Tennessee Ward 1
3 Stanton, Henry 26 M Mullatto Barber Pennsylvania Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), John 1 M Mullatto Ohio Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), Anna 4 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), William A 6 M Mullatto Canada X Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), Junius(Julius) 8 M Mullatto Canada X Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), Robert 11 M Mullatto Canada X Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), Harvey 35 M Mullatto Barber Massachuesetts Ward 1
4 Frilds(Fields), Jane 35 F Mullatto Georgia Ward 1
5 Mitchel, Jane 35 F Black Unknown Ward 1
5 Mitchel, ______ 40 M Black Cook Unknown Ward 1
6 Franklin, Clarkie 39 F Mullatto North Carolina X Ward 1
6 Franklin, James E 39 M Mullatto Carpenter North Carolina Ward 1
7 Nickolas, George 38 M Mullatto Painter New York Ward 1
8 French, Julia 16 F Mullatto Canada Ward 1
8 French, George 18 M Mullatto None Canada Ward 1
8 French, Spencer 56 M Mullatto Teamster Unknown X Ward 1
8 French, Mary 57 F Mullatto Michigan X Ward 1
9 Rolp(Ross), Robert 23 M Mullatto Labor Unknown Ward 1
10 Nickolas, Wilson 17 M Mullatto Painter New York Ward 2
10 Nickolas, Elizabeth 18 F Mullatto New York Ward 2
10 Nickolas, Edward 22 M Mullatto Drayman New York Ward 2
10 Nickolas, Marlon 24 M Mullatto Drayman New York Ward 2
10 Nickolas, Calvin 27 M Mullatto Carpenter New York Ward 2
10 Nickolas, William 59 M Mullatto None Virginia Ward 2
11 Anthony, Maria 36 F Black Maryland Ward 2
12 Kines(Hines, James 0.58 M Mullatto Ohio Ward 2
12 Kines(Hines), Mary 5 F Mullatto Indiana Ward 2
12 Kines(Hines), Sarah 25 F Mullatto North Carolina X Ward 2
12 Kines(Hines), James 31 M Mullatto Teamster North Carolina Ward 2
13 Manly, William 2 M Mullatto Indiana Ward 2
13 Manly, Roxana 4 F Mullatto Indiana Ward 2
13 Manly, Malinda 5 F Mullatto Illinois Ward 2
13 Manly, Obadiah 15 M Mullatto Tennessee Ward 2
13 Manly, Sarah 24 F Mullatto Tennessee Ward 2
13 Manly, Levi 45 M Mullatto Teamster Tennessee Ward 2
14 Crummell, Jane 11 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 2
14 Crummell, Peggy 60 F Black Maryland X Ward 2
15 Price, Albertina 1 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 2
15 Price, Louisa 3 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 2
15 Stanton, Harriet 18 F Mullatto Tennessee Ward 2
15 Price, Caroline 27 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 2
15 Price, B. A. 35 M Black Musician Illinois Ward 2
16 Wilson, Sarah 0.58 F Black Ohio Ward 4
16 Wilson, Robert 2 M Black Ohio Ward 4
16 Wilson, Maria 22 F Black Conneticut Ward 4
16 Wilson, Francis 24 M Black Barber Pennsylvania Ward 4
17 Nickolas, George N. 27 M Black Barber Virginia Ward 4
18 Williams, Harvey 19 M Black Barber Michigan Ward 4
19 Rice, Henry 15 M Black Waiter unknown Ward 4
20 Graves, Ann 28 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 4
20 Graves, John 31 M Black Porter Virginia Ward 4
21 Van Pelt, Louisa 24 F Mullatto Ward 4
21 Van Pelt, Henry 34 M Mullatto Barber New York Ward 4
22 Walker, Nancy 26 F Black Mississippi Ward 4
22 Walker, Elias 30 M Black Barber Virginia Ward 4
23 Williams, John 24 M Black Waiter Virginia Ward 4
24 Alexander, Thomas 38 M Black Waiter Kentucky Ward 4
25 Matthews, Benjamin 23 M Black Waiter Louisiana Ward 4
26 Coleman, Alfred 26 M Black Porter Kentucky Ward 4
27 Watkins, John 25 M Black Cook Tennessee Ward 4
28 Rivers, Frank 30 M Black Barber Ohio Ward 4
29 Richmond, Marcus A. 8 M Mullatto Indiana Ward 4
29 Richmond, Catherine 28 F Mullatto Pennsylvania Ward 4
29 Richmond, Alfred 30 M Mullatto Barber Tennessee Ward 4
30 Bartlett, Elizabeth 22 F Black New York Ward 4
30 Bartlett, Anderson 30 M Black Cook North Carolina Ward 4
31 Whitfield, Robert 0.83 M Black Ohio Ward 4
31 Whitfield, Jacob 4 M Black Ohio Ward 4
31 Whitfield, James 4 M Black Ohio Ward 4
31 Whitfield, John W. 5 M Black Canada Ward 4
31 Whitfield, Ann M 7 F Black Canada Ward 4
31 Whitfield, Hannah 22 F Black Ohio Ward 4
31 Whitfield, John 26 M Black Recefs Virginia Ward 4
32 Dease, Celia 25 F Black Ohio Ward 4
32 Dease, ________ 28 M Black Cook unknown Ward 4
33 Nickolas, Charles 25 M Black Butcher unknown Ward 4
34 Lucas, Alice 60 F Black unknown Ward 4
35 Buck, James L 2 M Black Michigan Ward 4
35 Buck, Alice 5 F Black Ohio Ward 4
35 Buck, Miles 6 M Black Ohio Ward 4
35 Buck, Alice 26 F Black Pennsylvania Ward 4
35 Buck, Miles 40 M Black Barber Pennsylvania Ward 4
36 Campbell, Mahala 2 F Mullatto Ohio Ward 4
36 Campbell, William 5 M Mullatto Michigan Ward 4
36 Campbell, Castillia 7 F Mullatto Michigan Ward 4
36 Campbell, Mary Ann (White) 31 W White Ireland Ward 4
36 Campbell, James 33 M Black Drayman Virgina Ward 4
37 Pule, Franklin 18 M Black Labor Pennsylvania Ward 4
37 Smith, Nancy 22 F Mullatto Canada Ward 4
37 Smith, George 25 M Mullatto Store Maker Canada Ward 4
38 Smith, William 1 M Mullatto Michigan Ward 4
38 Smith, George 5 M Mullatto Michigan Ward 4
39 Ambros, James 0.58 M Black Ohio Ward 4
39 Ambros, Julia Ann 23 F Black unknown Ward 4
39 Ambros, James 35 M Black Reseller of old clothes Pennsylvania Ward 4
40 Lynn, Mary 33 F Mullatto North Carolina Ward 4
40 Lynn, Henry 38 M Black Cooper Virginia Ward 4
41 Wilson, Charles S 2 M Black Ohio Ward 4
41 Wilson, Lovejoy 3 M Black Ohio Ward 4
41 Wilson, George H 6 M Black Ohio Ward 4
41 Wilson, Henrietta J 9 F Black Ohio Ward 4
41 Wilson, Cassandria S 12 F Black Ohio Ward 4
41 Wilson, Frances C 14 F Black New York Ward 4
41 Wilson, Julia Ann 36 F Black Conneticut Ward 4
41 Wilson, William H. 42 M Black Grower(sp?) Maryland Ward 4
42 Griswold, Daniel 25 M Black Cook New York Ward 4
43 LeBlew, Catharine 2 F Mullatto Ohio Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Francis 5 M Mullatto Ohio Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Tabatha 8 F Mullatto Ohio Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Cyril 10 M White Ohio Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Mary 12 F White Ohio Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Margaret 15 F White Indiana Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Arvilla 36 M Mullatto Labor Canada X Manhattan (North End)
43 LeBlew, Jane 39 F White Michigan Manhattan (North End)
Total Number of Individuals 121
Number labled “Black” 54
Number labeled “White” 5
Number labeled “Mullatto” 62
Number of Mixed Race Families (white wife) 2
Average Age 21.00206612
Average Age of Males 19.26760563
Average Age of Females 23.14795918
Number of Females 50
Number of Males 71
Age of Oldest Male (William Nickolas) 59
Age of Oldest Female (Peggy Crummel & Alice Lucas) 60
Age of Youngest Male (James Abros & James Kines(Hines) 0.58
Age of Youngest Female (Sarah Wilson) 0.58
Number of children who attended school in 1850
(Frilds/Fields) children in Ward 1.   Father was only Mass born resident.
3
Number Older than 15 74
Number 15 or Younger 47
Ward 1 Residents 24
Ward 2 Residents 22
Ward 3 Residents 0
Ward 4 Residents 68
Manhattan (North End) Residents 7
Oregon (East Side) Residents 0
Washington Township Residents 0
Port Lawrence Residents 0
Birthplace of Canada 9
Birthplace of Conneticut 2
Birthplace of Georgia 1
Birthplace of Illinois 2
Birthplace of Indiana 5
Birthplace of Ireland 1
Birthplace of Kentucky 2
Birthplace of Louisiana 1
Birthplace of Maryland 3
Birthplace of Massachuesetts 1
Birthplace of Michigan 9
Birthplace of Mississippi 1
Birthplace of New York 11
Birthplace of North Carolina 6
Birthplace of Ohio 31
Birthplace of Pennsylvania 7
Birthplace of Tennessee 7
Birthplace of Virginia 8
Birthplace Unknown 11
Occupation of Barber 11
Occupation of Butcher 1
Occupation of Carpenter 2
Occupation of Cook 6
Occupation of Cooper 1
Occupation of Drayman 3
Occupation of Grower(Gourny) 1
Occupation of Laborer 3
Occupation of Musician 1
Occupation of Painter 2
Occupation of Porter 2
Occupation of Recep/Recef 1
Occupation of Reseller of Old Clothes 1
Occupation of Store Maker 1
Occupation of Teamster 3
Occupation of Waiter 4
First Most Popular Surname – WILSON (2 households) 12
Second Most Popular Surname – NICKOLAS (4 households) 9

Maternal Genealogy – JONES/ROBINSON Families

Some of my earliest ancestors to move to Toledo arrived in Northwest Ohio between 1860 and 1870.

Nancy JONES was born in 1859 in Bainbridge, Ross County, Ohio. She was enumerated with her family on the 1860 United States Census when she was 8 months old.

Her parents were Mary JONES and John Wesley JONES who was listed as an “ME Minister” on the Census record. I believe that “ME” stood for “Methodist Episcopal. My maternal line have been members of Warren AME (African Methodist Episcopal) Church for many generations.

Nancy was the youngest child listed for Mary and John JONES on the 1860 Census. She had two older siblings listed as well. Her older sister’s name was Martha JONES and her older brother’s name was John JONES Jr.

John W. JONES Jr. was the oldest child. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1852. Martha JONES was also born in Pennsylvania but in 1854. Nancy JONES was the first of the JONES children born in Ohio.

John W. JONES Sr. stated on the 1860 Census that he was born in Maryland. He was born in approximately 1805. Mary JONES stated that she was born in Pennsylvania in approximately 1823.

I found Mary JONES and her three children on the 1870 Census living in Washington Township, Lucas County Ohio.  Washington Township is now a part of the City of Toledo.   On the 1870 Census there was another JONES child listed who was a younger sister to Nancy JONES. The youngest JONES child was named Francis JONES and she was born in 1860. I believe that they moved to Northwest Ohio around 1866. The Toledo Lucas County Public Library has a death record for a John JONES in 1867 but I am not certain that this is “my” John JONES due to the common name. However, he is the only John JONES listed in the death records between 1860 and 1870 and I am 80% certain that this is “my” John JONES.

During my genealogical compilation for this family, I was faced with many odd, in my opinion, difficulties. When you start out doing genealogy, one should start from the most current generation and work their way back. Luckily, Nancy JONES did not die until 1950 so my grandmother and her sister (my great aunt, who is still alive) knew Nancy JONES and they were able to provide me with a decent genealogical link to her that was easily verified via the census record information contained within familysearch.org.

My grandmother remembered Nancy as Nancy BAKER. She stated that Nancy, her grandmother, had lived with them for a time when she was a child. So going by that information, I looked up Nancy BAKER and basically hit a wall on this family that lasted for about 10 years.

In 2010 the 1940 census was released. I was not actively researching during that time due to regular life’s busy-ness so it wasn’t until around 2012 that I searched again for genealogical information. I looked up my grandmother on the 1940 Census since she was born in 1936. I thought it would be cool to have such a close link to historical information. My grandmother died in 2004 and I still miss her dearly and I was thinking of her at the time when I looked her up in 2012.

That query did pull up my grandmother, her siblings, including my great aunt who is still alive and their parents. It also showed that a Nancy BACKER lived next door to them which finally gave me a true connection to Nancy BAKER.

Many times on Census records surnames and given names are horrendously mispelled. Finding a Nancy, who was listed as approximately 80 years old in 1940 was extremely exciting for me!

From there, I found that Nancy had been living with a man named Stephen BAKER on the 1930 Census. At that time she also lived near my great grandmother. A big tip for people using Census records for genealogy is to peruse the entire handwritten page for neighbor’s names. Many times, people lived near their relatives or with their relatives and with today’s technology, if you search for a specific name, it will only provide you a printed, transcribed version of exactly what you were looking for so it is up to you to do additional digging.

After much research, I found out that Nancy was not originally married to Stephen BAKER. I had been looking for my 2nd great grandmother under the last name of BAKER due to thinking that BAKER may have been her maiden name. Instead I found out that Nancy was originally married to a man named James Edward ROBINSON.  Stephen BAKER was her second husband.

I found the death certificate of my 2nd great grandmother on familysearch’s database for Ohio Deaths. She died in 1941 from kidney disease. On her death certificate her mother was listed as Nancy JONES and her father was listed as James ROBSON. As with BACKER on the Census, ROBSON was written incorrectly. She was actually a ROBINSON.

This discovery allowed me to pull up all of the information regarding James Edward ROBINSON and Nancy JONES ROBINSON on Census records all the way back to 1900.

Unfortunately, I have yet to find a solid marriage certificate for them. Due to Nancy being in Lucas County, Ohio on the 1870 Census, I know that she lived in this area. Lucas County kept pretty good records for deaths, marriages, and births long before most states started to do this consistently. I did find a marriage record for a James E. ROBERTSON and Amanda JONES for November 11, 1874. I am somewhat sure that this is James and Nancy ROBINSON. Throughout the years ROBINSON has been spelled in many variations including the following: ROBINSON-ROBSON-ROBESON-ROBISON-ROBERTSON and another crazy variation that I will speak of below, which caused another brick wall for me that lasted until this year (2015).

James Edward ROBINSON showed up in the city directory for the City of Toledo in 1876.

He death certificate states that he was born in Harrisburgh, Pennsylvania.  His father’s name was listed as Frank ROBISON and his mother as “Becky” only.

Upon further review of ROBINSON’S in Pennsylvania on the 1860 and 1850 census records, I found a James E ROBINSON on the 1850 census listed with his father Franklin ROBINSON and mother Ellen ROBINSON.  Even though Ellen differed from what was listed on James’ death certificate as his mother (Becky), I am 100% sure that Ellen was James E ROBINSON’s mother.  Many times the informant who fills out a death certificate did not know the name of the person who passed away.  Information I have found lead me to believe that Ellen ROBINSON may have died or separated from her husband Franklin by the early 1860s.  On the 1860 census, Franklin ROBINSON is listed with his son but this time the name was listed a Edward James ROBINSON.  On various census records throughout the years, James Edward was listed as Edward James.  I am certain that he was the same person due to always being listed with his wife Nancy and their children as either James E, James Edward, Edward, or Ed.  The switching of the first and middle name is actually what made me know 100% that this family was the ROBINSON family I was looking for.

I have yet to find any death records for Franklin ROBINSON or Ellen ROBINSON.  I did find an exciting tidbit regarding Ellen in an online scholarly article about the effect of the Fugitive Slave Act on blacks in Harrisburgh, PA, but I will save that for another entry.

Due to census records not providing much detailed information prior to the 1850 census, I am temporarily at another road block for this family.  An interesting tidbit I am currently looking into is the fact that Franklin, Ellen, and James E ROBINSON lived with Thomas and Dinah WATKINS on the 1850 census.  I am going to attempt to connect the WATKINS families with the ROBINSON family and I am hoping that they are relatives of Ellen and/or Franklin.

After moving to Toledo, James Edward ROBINSON married Nancy JONES.  They eventually had seven children – Francis (1876-1932), Edna (1880-1929), Edward (1884-1951), Florence (1892-1941), Fred (1894-?), Naomi (1894-?), and William Alton (1898-1917).

Florence ROBINSON was my second great grandmother.

James Edward ROBINSON died in 1910.

As stated above, Nancy JONES ROBINSON BAKER did not die until 1950.  She was 90 years old when she passed away.

One of the best finds I discovered just this year was finally locating James Edward and Nancy ROBINSON on the 1880 Census.  After searching through both electronic records at the library via micro film, on family search and ancestry.com via census records and via hardcopy 1880 census indexes at the Toledo Lucas County Public Library, I was unsuccessful in locating this couple in Toledo or in PA or anywhere really.

I had decided this past summer to make a visit to the Newberry Library in Chicago since we make frequent visits there to see family.  I was initially only looking up a specific family that also was an early settler in NW Ohio – the WHITFIELDS.  I will write another post about that research later.  After finding the information I was looking for on the WHITFIELDs, I decided to look up other holdings of the library and they had a book which was loosely titled (going off my memory here, will edit later with the correct title) Blacks in Ohio in 1880.  It basically was a book that contained a list of all the black or mullatto or other “colored” residents in the state of Ohio on the 1880 census.

Within that book, I found all of my Ohio lines and due to there not being many black people in Toledo itself in 1880, I also saw a entry which listed a Nancy and Ed “BOBISON” who had older children who matched the names of the older ROBINSON children mentioned above.

I wanted to scream at the library!!  It was soooo exciting for me to see them in this book!  I had almost given up on this line and just chalked it up to not having any other way to research them.

Upon reviewing the 1880 “BOBISON” family it showed that they lived in a house with a Mary JONES and her children, John and Francis JONES.  This was how I found an entire new generation of the JONES family detailed above.

I am currently trying to connect the ROBINSON and JONES families to see if they both lived in the Harrisburgh, PA area.  Hopefully it won’t take another 10 years to find a connection.

 

The Story of Mrs. Hannah Davidson – Former Slave/Toledo Resident

The second formerly enslaved person interviewed by the WPA (see The Story of Mrs. Julia King) was Mrs. Hannah Davidson. Mrs. Davidson was approximately 85 years old at the time of her interview in 1937. She was interviewed by a person identified as K. Osthimer.

At the time of her interview, Mrs. Davidson lived at 533 Woodland Ave. Below is a picture of her home obtained from the Toledo Lucas County Public Library’s “Images in Time” collection. This collection contains many pictures of homes, businesses, and neighborhoods in Toledo from the 1800s forward. Mrs. Davidson’s home was photographed between 1937 and 1965 and the photograph was a part of a tax assessor’s records.

Hannah Davidson House

UPDATE:  I recently found a picture of Mrs. Hannah Davidson at the google news archives website.  She is pictured with another woman who is labeled as the “oldest members” of an organization.  I am thinking they were the oldest members of Third Baptist Church:

Mrs. Davidson is on the right

picture1

In the narrative, it was shared that Mrs. Davidson lived off of a $23 a month “old age pension.”  She was a boarder and rented a room in her home.  Many black Toledoans rented rooms as boarders or rented out rooms in their home for extra income during this time period.

Mrs. Davidson stated that her maiden name was Hannah Merriwether and that she had four sisters and two brothers.  Her parents names were Isaac and Nancy Merriwether.  She was born in Ballard County, Kentucky in approximately 1852.  She and her family were the slaves of Emmett and Susan Merriwether.

Mrs. Davidson’s story is dramatically different from that of Mrs. Julia King’s being that Hannah Davidson’s family did not come to the Toledo area via the Underground Rail Road as runaway slaves.

Mrs. Davidson stated that her folks were sold so many times that she “lost track” of them.  She also mentioned that she and her sister  Mary were kept over twenty years after emancipation by their slave master as slaves because the master would not let them leave.  She spoke of how she desperately wanted to learn to read and go to school but that the one black man who came to her county to teach “colored” people was beaten and run out of town by whites.  Mrs. Davidson eventually learned to read by herself with the help of WPA programs in the 1930s.

Mrs. Davidson reiterated many times about how hard she had worked her whole life.  She spoke of how one time she was so tired that she hid under a house just to take a nap and go to sleep because she was exhausted.

She also mentioned that her mother was the last slave to try to leave the plantation.  Her mother tried to take Mrs. Davidson as well but their master would not let the mother take her children.  Her mother was kicked off the plantation and Mrs. Davidson never saw her again.  Later on in life Mrs. Davidson forced her own sister Mary to leave the plantation by threatening her with a rolling pin.

Mrs. Davidson mentioned that “terrible” things happened to herself and her sister Mary.  She did not go into detail but it is well documented that female slaves were highly likely to be sexually assaulted and abused.

When she was 31, Mrs. Davidson stated that she married her husband William L. Davidson.  She stated that at the time of the interview, she only had one grandchild still living – Willa May Reynolds who was a teacher in City Grove, Tennessee.

Mrs. Davidson was a member of Third Baptist Church in Toledo.

My favorite quote from Mrs. Davidson was “I believe we should all do good to everybody.”

The idea that she maintained such positivity throughout her lifetime is a testament to the human spirit and is indicative of black American culture in regards to strength in faith and hope for the future.

I was very saddened and inspired when initially reading Mrs. Davidson’s narrative.  It is also interesting to compare the two persons interviewed in Toledo – Mrs. Julia King and Mrs. Hannah Davidson.  Mrs. King’s family escaped slavery when she was a young girl and so Mrs. King did not have to live with the trials of this horrible institution like Mrs. Davidson.  Mrs. Davidson did not get the benefit of being educated and thus could not obtain employment such as that afforded by Mrs. King’s background and subsequent work for the local government.  Mrs. King owned her home while Mrs. Davidson rented a room in  her old age.  The contrasts between the two women really do show how oppression and forced servitude and a lack of freedom can drastically reduce the opportunity afforded to one in their life.

The Story of Mrs. Hannah Davidson

GENEALOGICAL INFORMATION REGARDING MRS. HANNAH MERIWETHER DAVIDSON AND FAMILY

William DAVISON/DAVIDSON born 9/8/1865 died 3/10/1920 (familysearch.org – Ohio Deaths 1840-2001)

George DAVIDSON born 1898 in KY, lived in 1930 in Toledo, Ohio (familysearch.org – 1930 Census) son of Hannah DAVIDSON

Wanda DAVIDSON born 1915 in OH, lived in 1930 Toledo, Ohio (familysearch.org – 1930 Census) daughter of Hannah DAVIDSON

Hannah DAVIDSON born 1852 in KY, lived in 1930 Toledo, Ohio (familysearch.org – 1930 Census)

Helen DAVIDSON died 1/18/1928 in Toledo, Ohio (familysearch.org – Ohio deaths 1908-1953) wife of George Davidson

 

 

The Story of Mrs. Julia King – Former Slave/Toledo Resident

During my research and due to my interest in black history, I discovered the Federal Works Progress Administration’s (WPA) slave narrative collection about 15 years ago.

During “The Great Depression” of the 1930s, President Roosevelt created the WPA in order to put educated Americans, especially in the arts, back into the workforce due to the extreme unemployment and economic conditions faced by Americans during this era.

Luckily, the WPA took an interest in recording the lives of black Americans who were former slaves.  The year 1935 marked seventy years since the end of the Civil War.  Those persons interviewed by WPA workers were primarily in their 80s and 90s.  Some were centenarians (aged 100 or above).   Two individuals who lived in Toledo and who attended Third Baptist Church were interviewed – Julia King and Hannah Davidson.  Both of their interviews provide a wealth of information about slavery, escaping slavery, and black history in Toledo.

Mrs. Julia King was approximately 80 years old when she was interviewed in 1937.  She was the wife of Toledo’s first black police officer – Albert King picture below.

Albert King

At the time of her interview, Mrs. King lived at 731 Oakwood Ave.  A search on googlemaps shows that her house has been demolished as an empty lot is now at that address.

She spoke of how both of her biological daughters died, one as an infant and one at 13 years of age.  Black children in Toledo had high mortality rates in the late 1800s and early 1900s.  During the time of the interview, Mrs. King lived with her adopted daughter Elizabeth KING KIMBREW (KIMBROUGH).

In her interview she spoke of how she was the first black “colored juvenile officer” in the city of Toledo.  She worked in this position for 20 years.  The first 3 years she did it on a volunteer basis and was not paid for her work.

Mrs. King’s maiden name was Julia WARD.  She was born in Louisville, Kentucky to Samuel and Matilda WARD.  She had a sister named Mary WARD who was about 1.5 years older than she was.  Her parents were slaves in Kentucky.  Her father ran away via the Underground Railroad to Canada and left her mother, herself, and her sister in Kentucky.

Later, Mrs. King’s mother also decided to run away and join Samuel in freedom.  Mrs. King spoke of how her mother was happy that on the day that she planned to run away, Matilda’s mistress decided not to take Mary to the market with her.  The mistress usually had Mary accompany her to the market.  Matilda was prepared to run away and leave Mary behind, but due to the mistresses decision, she took both Julia and Mary to freedom.

They made it all the way to Detroit via boat and then went up to Windsor to meet Mrs. King’s father, who had been working there as a cook. They eventually settled in Detroit and she spent her childhood there prior to moving to Toledo.

In her narrative, Mrs. King also relates lots of information about the conditions faced by slaves on their plantation and about a song her mother sang to her.  The WPA had a specific list of questions that they were supposed to ask their interviewees and one was to ask them to sing a song from their childhood.  During the 1930s there was a large interest in black folk music for anthropological study and the interviews reflect this interest.

Mrs. King mentioned that she was a member of Third Baptist church and was drawn to the church due to them having a requirement of an “immersing baptism.”  She also mentioned that she was involved with national colored women’s clubs and had met Booker T. Washington and his wife and had heard a reading of Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poems in Toledo.  Dunbar lived in Toledo for about a year while he was ill with tuberculosis, an extremely common disease in the late 19th and early 20th century.  He would eventually succomb to the condition as did many of my own family members.

I loved Mrs. King’s interview.  Mostly due to the wealth information obtained from her recount of the escape from slavery, a topic which is now a heavy focus for historical research.  I also loved that she seemed to come alive to me, mostly due to my favorite quote from her interiew when she was asked about Frederick Douglass (as mentioned a man I thoroughly love)

“The only thing I had against Frederick Douglas was that he married a white woman.”  LOL!  I thought it hilarious that she exhibited the same feelings many people have about interracial marriages even today amongst older black women.

That said, Mrs. King seemed like a formidable woman.  She had been through a lot and it is amazing to me that she went to the same church that my family attended.  I had read Mrs. King’s interview prior to my step great-grandmother passing away and asked her if she knew Mrs. King and Mrs. Davidson, another former slave interviewed in Toledo.  She said she knew of them at church and had seen both but didn’t know them personally since they were older members and she was just a young woman during this time period.  It is fascinating to me that she knew actual slaves and I knew her.  She only recently died in 2008.  This goes to show that we are not as far removed from slavery as we think we are.

The Story of Mrs. Julia King – Toledo Ohio

GENEALOGICAL INFORMATION ABOUT JULIA WARD KING AND FAMILY

A review of records from www.familysearch.org showed the following in regards to Mrs. King’s listed family members from her narrative:

Mary WARD born appx 1856 in Kentucky, died in Detroit, MI in 1891 – listed parents were Samuel and Matilda WARD (Michigan Deaths 1800-1995)

Julia KING born appx 1856 in Kentucky, died in Toledo, OH in 1938 (one year after interviewed – they made it in time!) – listed parents were Samuel WARD and Matilda MACALVIN, listed spouse Albert KING (Ohio Deaths 1908-1953) buried at Forrest Cemetery

Albert McKinney KING born 1/21/1851 in Toronto, Canada, died in Toledo, OH 1934

Samuel WARD born appx 1830, died in Detroit, MI 1890 (Michigan Deaths 1867-1897)

Matilda WARD born 8/3/1844, died in Toledo, OH 1916 lived at 731 Oakwood Ave, buried at Forrest Cemetery (Ohio Deaths 1840-2001)

Marriage record of Betty(Elizabeth) KING KIMBROUGH (spelled KIMBREW in the narrative) married on 8/12/1935 to Samuel KIMBROUGH both were divorced at time of marriage and this was the second marriage for both parties

Marriage record of Elizabeth KING married on 9/14/1928 to John LYTLE.  This was the first marriage of both parties.  Elizabeth KING listed as 21 years of age at date of marriage.

Marriage record of Albert KING and Julia WARD married on 10/20/1875 in Toledo, Ohio