Tag Archives: warren ame

Notable Black Toledoans – George W. TUCKER and Dr. Alpheus W. TUCKER

My research of late has shown a lot of connections between my own ancestors who were early Toledo residents and the black communities in SE Michigan, in particular our larger city to the north – Detroit.   I’ve also discovered some connections to Detroit for some of our notable 19th century black residents.

In reviewing some of the black Toledoans who were mentioned as having been involved in Underground Railroad activities in local newspapers, it was noted in the post regard William H. MERRITT, that in 1858 the negroes of Toledo held a meeting to determine who would be the delegate sent from our city to the convention held in Columbus, Ohio.  The delegate chosen, per that news article was G.W. TUCKER.

George W. TUCKER was enumerated in the City of Toledo on the 1860 census.  It was shown that he was born in Kentucky around 1812 and had four younger persons, presumably his children, in his household.  Mary W., aged 23; Georgetta A., aged 18; Alpheus W. (or Alphonse) aged 16; and Caspar M. (or Cassius) aged 14.  In 1860 George was 48 years old and listed as a “mullatto.”  He was a Barber and owned real estate worth $300 and a personal estate worth $250.

In a review of George W. TUCKER’s life, I did not find much more about his residency in Toledo, except for the note below posted in the Toledo Daily Blade on December 30, 1858.

We are advised by the receipt of the proceedings of a meeting of colored people held at their school-house in this city, recently but which are too lengthy for our space, that a resolution was passed to send a delegate to the Under Ground R.R. Convention, to be held at Columbus on the 5th and 6th of January. Agreeable to previous arrangements a mass meeting was then held on Tuesday evening last, for the election of a delegate, resulting in the choice of G.W. Tucker. The officers of the meeting were W.H. Merritt, President, and M.H. Hawkins, Secretary

Per Toledo City Directories starting in 1864, TUCKER was not listed as a resident; however, George W. TUCKER “colored” was listed in the 1858 City Directory, which can be viewed via the Toledo Lucas County Public Library’s online digital archive.  He was labeled as a “barber” and located at “Locust b Ontario and Michigan, east side.”  A review of death registers for the city showed that there was a “colored” man of the same name and age of George W. TUCKER who died in 1862 in the city. It appears that TUCKER moved to the city around 1850.

A quick google of his name brought up a connection between TUCKER and famed black Underground Railroad conductor from Detroit by the name of William LAMBERT.  LAMBERT lead a group of of primarily black men in an organization he called  “African American Mysteries:  Order of the Men of Oppression” also called the “Men of Mysteries.” He and other notable Detroit abolitionists were actively involved in transporting runaway slaves from Detroit to Canada during the antebellum period.  Per the text “The Underground Railroad in Michigan” LAMBERT was interviewed by a reporter in 1886 and spoke of how 60,000 men took the “order” and became members of his secret organization whose primary focus was helping those who “self emancipated” themselves to get to Canada.  Unfortunately his records detailing those transported to freedom and those who worked within “the order” have unknown whereabouts.  In the book mentioned above, it was noted that George W. TUCKER was an agent who handled subscriptions to a newspaper called “The Mystery” founded by Martin DELANY of Pennsylvania, another black abolitionist and Underground Railroad administrator.  TUCKER handled subscriptions for this paper in the Detroit area.

Other information reviewed regarding the history of George W. TUCKER uncovered that he was one of the 9 black/colored residents listed in Detroit’s first city directory published in 1837.  He was listed as a hairdresser and a barber many times in Detroit through the 1850s.  As noted above, he was listed in Toledo with his family in 1860.  It is unknown if he was engaged in activities related to the Underground Railroad in Toledo, but his association with other known UGGR Toledoans like William H. MERRITT and his mention of him being a delegate from Toledo to the UGGR convention make this very likely to be the case.

It seems that George TUCKER died in Toledo in 1862 of “consumption.”  He was listed as being 50 years old and buried at Forest Cemetery but a review of cemetery records does not show his name and year of death.  They may not have information that far back for the online records of the cemetery.

A review of the family of George TUCKER showed that his two son’s Alpheus and Cassius lived with a couple with the surname of HUBBARD in 1850 in Detroit when they were children.  I could not find George TUCKER on the 1850 census so he may not have been enumerated that year.

George’s son Cassius TUCKER moved back to Detroit after 1860.  He was listed as a “colored” barber in the City of Detroit directory in 1864 living on “Mullet bet Hastings and St Antoine.”  He was the only “colored” TUCKER living in Detroit during that year.

Cassius later married Eliza JOHNSON a Richmond, Virginia native.  A marriage record has not been found for the couple, but I believe they may have married in the metropolitan District of Columbia area considering that their first born child Beatrice TUCKER was listed as having been born in DC in 1865 on the 1870 Census.  The rest of their children in 1870 – Alberta, born 1867; and Octavia born 1870 were listed as having been born in Michigan.

The DC connection I felt was plausible considering that Cassius’  brother – Alpheus (or Alphonse or William A TUCKER) was living in the DC area in the 1860s following the Civil War.

Alpheus W. Tucker showed up in numerous queries due to being a physician who was was an early black physician working in Washington, DC after the Civil War.  Research into Alpheus showed that he and his brother Cassius grew up in Toledo and received their early education in the city.  More than likely they attended the segregated public school system of TPS or the private Colored School administered by Warren AME church due to them being children in the city prior to the 1873 desegregation of the school system.  Alpheus later went on to attend Wilberforce College between the years of 1861 and 1863.  One of his classmates included Dr. Charles Burleigh PURVIS, who was the son of two leading black abolitionist families in Philadelphia.  Alpheus attended the Iowa College of Physicians and Surgeons and graduated in 1865.   Dr. Alpheus Tucker worked as a civilian surgeon during the Civil War at Contraband Hospital.  He also had a record listed in the District of Columbia’s Freedman’s Bureau Field Office Records as receiving a disbursement/payment for work after the war.  His payment was provided on October 21, 1865.  He was paid $100 for services rendered in a department called “A. A. Surgeon.”  Research showed that this was an abbreviation for “Acting Assistant Surgeon” and that persons listed usually were employed as civilians by the medical department working for the Bureau.   Alpheus married a woman named Martha Ellen WOOD on the 24th of January, 1867 and they had one daughter – Estella TUCKER.

A review of Alpheus TUCKER shows that as a black physician, he was limited in opportunities for employment primarily due to race.  Information obtained in the reference below regarding the history of the National Medical Association, shows that he and his black physician colleagues of DC often had to work for government positions or some other job during the day and practice medicine at night.  Due to race prejudice, black doctors were not allowed admitting privileges to local hospitals.  They also primarily saw black patients and due to the black population of DC being made up of primarily newly freed slaves, opportunities for a decent living as a black doctor were limited because many of their patients could not afford to pay for medical services.  Due to this a large percentage of black physicians obtained other degrees in other disciplines in order to be able to make a decent living during the period following the Civil War.

In 1869 Dr. TUCKER was mentioned in various newspaper articles from DC where he was listed as a member of the Republican Party and gave comments regarding local elections in the capital.  He was also the cause of a controversy in the medical community when he applied for admission into the District of Columbia Medical Society along with his Oberlin classmate Dr. Charles PURVIS.  Both men and fellow black physician Dr. Alexander AUGUSTA were denied admission due to “color phobia.”  Their request for admission was deemed a part of the “Trouble of 1869 to 1872” by a history of the National Medical Association. Information found showed that:

On the 9th of June, 1869, two colored physicians, Drs. C. B. PURVIS and A. T. Augusta, were proposed for membership in the Society. At the next meeting,
June 16th, they were reported as eligible. They failed, however, to receive the requisite number of votes to elect them. June 23rd, another colored physician, Dr. A. W. Tucker, was proposed; on the 30th he was reported as eligible, but failed of election.

As a response to not being admitted to the medical association, it was noted that TUCKER and his black colleagues took action and formed their own, integrated medical society:

In response to the rejection of Drs. Purvis, Augusta, and Tucker in 1869, the three Negro physicians and their supports formed a new integrated society which they named the National Medical Society (NMS). In December of that year, amongst much publicity in the local papers, the battle moved to Congress when the NMS appealed to Congress for the repeal of the MSDC’s charter. The grounds for the repeal, according to the NMS, was that the Society was acting in dereliction of its charter by refusing admission to all physicians in the District, regardless of color.

Dr. Alpheus TUCKER was enumerated with his wife and daughter in the WOOD household  in DC on the 1870 census.  Research into his work, shows that he worked in DC as a physician through 1878.  Between 1878 and 1880 he seems to have moved to Detroit, where his brother Cassius had relocated to in the 1860s.  Alpheus was listed as having died in Wayne County, Michigan  in January of 1880.  His widow and child stayed in DC where his wife and later his daughter worked as teachers in the public school system for black students in that city.   Martha E TUCKER his widow (shown below) was mentioned in the publication “The Crisis” as an employee of the DC public schools for 50 years.  She served as a teacher, principal and as a social worker.  Her daughter Estelle also became a teacher.

Martha WOOD TUCKER from “The Crisis” NAACP publication vol 22,  no. 1, pgs 22-23 May, 1921

 

Alpheus’ brother Cassius lived out his life in Detroit and died between 1900 and 1910.  I have yet to locate his death record but his wife Eliza JOHNSON TUCKER was listed as a widow by 1910 in the City of Detroit directory.

REFERENCES:

 

Toledo City Directory 1858 (accessed via TLCPL online digital archives 12/10/2017)

“The Underground Railroad in Michigan” Mull, Carol (see link above)

Ohio County Death Records – Death of GW Tucker, colored (accessed 11.9/2017)

District of Columbia Marriages – 1811-1950, Alpheus W. Tucker (accessed 11/9/2017 – see link above)

The Black Past – African Americans in Medicine in the Civil War (accessed 12/10/2017)

The Founding of the National Medical Association (accessed 12/10/2017)

The Crisis – Volumes 22-24 (short biography and picture of Martha WOOD TUCKER accessed 12/10/2017)

Early Black Toledo Families – TILTON

One of the earliest found commercial establishment of Toledo’s black community was a restaurant/saloon established by John B. TILTON who was mentioned as a restaurateur in the city directory in 1868.  Mr. TILTON had been a resident of Northwest Ohio since at least 1860 and prior to opening his own restaurant, he was listed as a farmer in Swanton.  John TILTON seemingly moved to Toledo after 1860 as in the 1864 Toledo directory, there was a “cold” John TILTON listed as a Porter employed by the Oliver House.

TILTON was labeled as associated with the  restaurant business on the 1870 Census. Occupations of “restaurant” or “restaurant keeper” were shown on the document.  TILTON had real estate valued between $4000 and $12000 and a personal estate of between $1000 and $3000.  Based on real and personal estate figures, he was one of the wealthiest black men in Toledo in 1870 and the only black saloon/restaurant keeper in the city at the time.

Per the 1860 census and every census afterwards John B TILTON was born in the state of Delaware in approximately 1820.  In 1860 he was a farmer in Swanton and in his household was Sarah TILTON, presumably his wife and two black residents named John INGRAHAM and Woodson DERINGER.  Both were labeled as black farm laborers.

The TILTON restaurant was also labeled in the city directory as a “distiller” and a saloon, basically a club and drinking establishment.  Due to there being so few black/colored residents in 1868, TILTON was required to serve a diverse crowd in his establishment.  It can be assumed that John TILTON took advantage of the many economic advantages of a diverse, integrated society that Toledo was in the mid 1800s.  His restaurant/saloon was located near the corner of Monroe and St. Clair Street near the present day “Hensville” outdoor venue arena, Fifth/Third Field, and the SeaGate Convention Center.  It was a part of a community of establishments that took advantage of what was then known as Toledo’s “Times Square” in the 19th century.  St. Clair Street was the location of a variety of theaters and commercial establishments for many years, and luckily the area is seeing a resurgence in being the center of similar activities today.

John TILTON’s business was called the Opera House Restaurant in the 1878 Toledo directory ad that was placed for the establishment.  It was across the street from the Wheeler Opera House, which was one of the most popular entertainment venues in Toledo at the time.  Per the ad below he was “Open at all Hours” and even had a separate area for women’s entertainment with a “Ladies Dining Hall, Up Stairs.”  Associating his business with the opera house and being so near it would encourage crowds going to or leaving shows to also visit his establishment for drinks and food in association with the shows and visitors to the Wheeler.  The ad also showed that diners would be treated to all sorts of “game” that was always in season

 

1878 City of Toledo Director – Opera House Restaurant – John. B. TILTON proprietor

Many today, due to seeing depictions of saloons in old Western movies, associate them with prostitution.  Though it is true that many of them did provide venues of “vice” it should be noted that a majority of saloons were not houses of prostitution.  Most served as restaurants and nightclubs.  Many, per the source linked below regarding Toledo’s saloon culture, also served as hotels, especially those ran by women who rented out rooms as a way to make a living after being widowed.  On the 1880 Census half of the persons enumerated at TILTON’s establishment were labeled as “borders” meaning they were renting rooms at his saloon.

I found no evidence that the TILTON establishment was involved in any illegal activities after a review of Toledo newspapers.  In 1880 the Census takers seemingly counted all the workers who were employed by TILTON.  All of them were black community members of Toledo.  His employees included Joseph GARRETT who was mentioned as being the father in law of Toledo’s first black photographer George FIELDS.  Both men were also listed as some of the early trustees of Warren AME Church.  The occupations listed for TILTON’s employees ranged from “cook” to “porter” to “dishwasher.”  All of his workers in 1880 were labeled as black or mullato while all the borders were white, showing that he primarily hired black workers yet served a majority white customer base.  He and other black business owners assisted the small black community due to their hiring trends based on the fact that in the City of Toledo, employment opportunities for black/colored Americans in the 19th century were severely limited due to the prevalence of race prejudiced against all people with any known negro ancestry.

A further review of the history of Warren AME Chruch showed that John B. Tilton was also listed as one of the trustees of the church who bought the first church home for the young congregation.  The deed information shown below, listed as Trustees various persons who I am currently researching in early Toledo’s black community as are shown in bold:

Know all men be these present that we Calvin Barker and Mary Barker, his wife, in consideration of dollars to us paid by Joseph Garrett, David Gatsel, William Mills, John B. Tilton, David Philips, Simon Roady and George Field, Trustees of the African Methodist Episcopal Church of the City of Toledo, State of Ohio, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, do hereby grant, bargain, sell and convey to said Trustees and their successors for the uses and purposes of said African Methodist Episcopal Church their successors and assigns forever all the piece or parcel of land known and described as follows:

 

I could not find out much about TILTON’s life prior to him moving to Northwest Ohio.  Due to him consistently being labeled as being born in the state of Delaware, I did a search of Delawareans with the surname TILTON.  I did find a free black family with the surname TILTON on the 1850 Census in Kent County, Delaware, but no one named John TILTON.    I also discovered a white TILTON family who were slave owners in Delaware.  One of the members of this family – Dr. James TILTON moved to Madison, Indiana in the late 1820s.  He was a Revolutionary War veteran and when in Dupont, Indiana, it was noted in the work “Free Boy:  A True Story of Slave and Master” that Dr. TILTON  apprenticed a young black boy named John SMITH to train as a farmer soon after moving to Indiana in 1827-1828.  The age of this young John SMITH does approximately match that of John TILTON but there is no solid evidence that John TILTON was associated with the white TILTON family from Delaware.  If additional information shows up, this post will be updated in the future.

I also have been unable to locate a death record for either John TILTON or his wife Sarah.  John was labeled as a “widower” on the 1880 census so it can be assumed that his wife Sarah passed away by that year.  TILTON was consistently listed in the city directory until 1883 when he no longer had an entry showing.  Unfortunately many of my own relatives who died in Toledo between 1880 and 1900 have spotty and some, non-existent death records and it seems that TILTON may have also fell into this category of poor death record keeping for those decades.  However, I did locate some index entries for Ohio Death records between 1890 and 1900 where there were 2 John TILTON’s listed has having died in the City of Toledo.  I will review information at the TLCPL and/or the county vital statistics office to see if there are any additional entries for those deaths since only a name and date of death was provided online.

 

REFERENCES:

Hawkins, Arnette.  “Raising our Glass: Saloon Culture in Toledo, Ohio” 2010

History Footnotes – Warren AME Church History

US Census 1860 – Household of John B. TILTON

US Census 1870 – Household of John TILDON

US Census 1880 – Household of John B TILTON (restaurant)

City of Toledo Directory 1864-1883 – accessed 4/24/2017-6/25/2017 ancestry.com

 

Early Black Toledo Families – GATLIFF/GATLEFF

As was shared in the post regarding basketball legend William (Bill) McNeil JONES, his parents were William A. JONES and Jessie L. GATLIFF.  Both the JONES and GATLIFF families lived in the Toledo area prior to 1900 before the Great Migration got into full swing and the black population of Toledo swelled like many other Midwest industrial centers.

I thought it would be interesting to explore some of the families of early black/colored Toledoans and due to my curiosity regarding those families from my transcriptions of the 1840 through 1900 census information (I am currently working to transcribe the 1900 census).  Unlike other persons I mentioned in this blog, a majority of these other black/colored individuals and families weren’t well known in the community.  However, the history of regular people’s lives is just as important and interesting as more well known persons and a review of the family of Jessie GATLIFF is well worth sharing some information.

Jessie L. GATLIFF/GATLEFF  was born in Chillocothe, Ohio in approximately 1882.  Her parents were John H. GATLIFF/GATLEFF Jr. and Amanda GOINS/GOINGS/GOENS.  She was the second of three children born to John Jr. and Amanda.  She was the middle child between older brother Clark and younger brother Everett James.

The GATLIFF/GATLEFF family had lived in Chillicothe since approximately 1870.  John H. GATLIFF/GATLEFF Jr. was originally born in Rockcastle County, Kentucky  and was the son of John H. GATLIFF Sr (1823-1910) and Cynthia GATLIFF (1824-1913).  This couple threw me for a few loops in researching them due to both Cynthia and John Sr. having the same surname.  A review of Milton GATLIFF/GATLEFF’S death certificate – a son of John Sr. and Cynthia, and due to a clue revealed in a book about Cynthia’s mother Rose, it was shown that John Sr. took the surname of his wife when they were married.  Due to that, I have not been able to track his family back further than John Sr.  On his death certificate, shown below, his parents were unknown.

Cynthia GATLIFF/GATLEFF was also born in Kentucky in approximately 1824.  Her mother Rose GATLIFF/GATLEFF was held as a slave and had to sue for her freedom in the courts of Kentucky.  It took her nearly 20 years but she was eventually set free.  As a free woman, she was enumerate on the 1850 census in Rockcastle County, Kentucky with some of her children and grandchildren.  Rose was born in Virginia in approximately 1772 and was the daughter of a “mullatto” allegedly of mixed European and Native ancestry.  She was described as having blond hair and blue eyes.  Her case was based upon her stating that her mother was a native American and therefore she could not be held as a slave.  In the late 18th century, indigenous people were no longer considered slaves and if she had been born to a Native mother, she would automatically be free.  According the book “Rose, a Woman of Color:  A Slave’s Struggle for Freedom in the Courts of Kentucky,” by Arnold Taylor, Rose, through her attorneys claimed that she was made a slave through illegal maneuvering.  Jenny, Rose’s mother thought that she was putting Rose into an indentured servitude period, it was Rose and her attorney’s position that instead, Rose was instead enslaved.  Documents were drawn up labeling her as a slave.  The prosecutors alleged that due to the records of Virginia, as they discovered paperwork that supported that Rose was sold as a slave as a girl, that she was indeed a slave.  They also alleged that her mother Jenny was not a Native American and instead a mullato with some negro ancestry.  Many witnesses were brought forth for both Rose’s and the state’s case.  Her attorney’s position was, that of course the persons who profited off of Rose would take advantage of her position as a mullatto child of Indian and white ancestry and make her a slave for their benefit, so the jury should not accept that the documents of Rose’s alleged status as a slave should be believed.

The book above was very interesting and gave a good genealogical account of Rose’s family, including her mother Jenny and her suspected father who was a white man that Jenny worked for. It also discussed that one of Rose’s daughters – Nancy GATLIFF/GATLEFF had been freed due to winning a case in Indiana, whereas her owner had taken her to that “free” state for more than 6 months and left her there.  Nancy also won her case.  One of the arguments against Rose, ironically was that since Nancy was freed due to Indiana’s laws regarding slaves, that Rose herself, must legally be a slave and not eligible to be freed based on her mother’s ancestry.  Rose GATLIFF/GATLEFF died died a free woman around 1870 and at that time most of her children moved to Ross County, Chillicothe, Ohio including Cynthia and John Sr.

Due to John Jr. and Amanda being listed on the 1880 Census in Ross County, City of Chillicothe and because both Jessie L, born in 1882 and Everett, born in 1885 had birth records on file in Ross County, it can be determined that John Jr. did not move away from Ross county until after 1885.

John Jr. was one of 10 known children of John Sr. and Cynthia GATLIFF/GATLEFF.  Two of his brothers – James and Frank GATLIFF showed up in the Toledo City Directory in 1892 and 1895.  By 1900, John Jr. and his sons Clark and Everett GATLIFF/GATLEFF were living  in Toledo.  Clark GATLIFF was also listed in the city directory in 1899 so we can conclude that members of the GATLIFF family moved to Toledo between 1890 and 1900.

Per the census document below, John Jr., Clark and Everett were living in a boarding house in 1900 located at 132 N. Erie Street.  That address is now a parking lot located near the corner of Erie and Jefferson Ave in downtown Toledo.  In 1900 John Jr. was working as a laborer.  His oldest son Clark was a Porter in a barber shop  while younger brother Everett, who was only 14, had “At School” listed as his occupation. By 1910, Jessie was also living in Toledo and was married to William JONES.

1900 CENSUS – GATLIFF/GATLEFF

There was never a record of Amanda GOENS/GOINS GATLIFF in Toledo and I have yet to find a death certificate for her.  John Jr. re-married in 1914 to a woman named Martha YOUNG.  He is last found in genealogical records on the 1920 census where he lived with his second wife Martha.  John Jr. died in Toledo in 1921.   His last known residence was 580 Norwood Ave, which was listed as his residence on both the 1920 census and his death record in 1921.  That address currently is just an empty lot very close to interstate 75 in Toledo and the home probably was demolished to make way for the freeway.

John Jr.’s daughter Jessie GATLIFF married one of my 4th great uncles – William Allen JONES on April 27, 1907.  Together they had nine children, eight lived to adulthood.  Both Jessie and William were active members of Toledo’s black community from the early 1900s until their deaths in the 1950s.  Jessie’s obituary labeled her as a “Church and Organizational Leader” and listed the many organizations that she worked and lead during her lifetime.  Her obituary is listed below.  She died on April 18, 1959:

As stated earlier, Jessie was the mother of William (Bill) McNeill JONES one of the first black basketball players who integrated professional basketball.  Her youngest child – Elizabeth JONES WILSON died in Toledo in October of 2014.

Additional information regarding the brothers of Jessie GATLIFF JONES was also discovered, including an obituary of Everett James GATLIFF whose daughter Dorothy GATLIFF BROWN was hired as one of Toledo’s first black female police officers in 1946.

 

Below is a lint to a short family tree of the GATLIFFs.  Please note that these particular descendants of Rose GATLIFF/GATLEFF are the Toledo branch.  If there is any inquiries about this family please email me for a complete tree at blackintoledo@gmail.com

GATLIFF family link

REFERENCES:

1850 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 3/3/2017 (Household of Maragret GATLIFF)

1860 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of Cynthia GATLIFF)

1870 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of John GATLIFF)

1880 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017  (Household of John GATLIFF)

1900 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of John GATLIFF)

1900 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 3/31/2017 (Household of Albert SPEAD – boarding house)

1910 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 2/26/2017 (Household of Cynthia GATLIFF)

Ohio Deaths  1908-1953, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017 – death record of Cynthia GATLIFF

Ohio Deaths 1908-1953, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017  – death record of John GATLIFF Sr.

1910 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

1920 US Census, via familysearch.og; accessed on 3/31/2017 (Household of John GATLIFF Jr.)

1920 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed on 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

Ohio Deaths 1908-1953, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017 – death record of John H. GATLIFF Jr.

Michigan Marriages 1868-1925, via familysearch.org; accessed 2/26/2017 – marriage record of John H. GATLIFF Jr and Martha A YOUNG.

Ohio County Marriages 1789-2013, via familysearch.org; accessed 11/15/2016 – marriage record of William A. JONES and Jessie L. GATLIFF

1930 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

1940 US Census, via familysearch.org; accessed 11/15/2016 (Household of William JONES)

Toledo Blade Obituary Index, via Toledo Lucas County Public Library 2/28/2017; Jessie L JONES published April 20, 1959

Toledo Blade Obituary Index, via Toledo Lucas County Public Library 2/28/2107; Everett James JONES published January 20, 1953

Toledo Blade; “Blazing a Trail” published 2/26/2003

Black Culture Series – Education and Intellectualism

As was hinted upon in the second part of this series regarding The Black Family, education has always been a focus of the demographic.

Since the 1970s educational statistics for the black demographic have greatly increased regarding high school graduation rates and college entrance and matriculation.

Unfortunately these positive gains are many times overshadowed by pervasive, negative depictions of blacks in media which serve to show black Americans as a demographic that lacks a desire to lift itself via education and hard work. A historical, cultural view of education and intellectualism in black America, however, refutes this depiction as a false stereotype.

As has been shared in this series and in this blog, black Americans have lived in this country for centuries as a majority enslaved population and minority “free” status. Both enslaved and free blacks sought an education due to the understanding that knowledge is power and has the potential to create vast opportunities for the individual, family, and community at large.

Unfortunately for many centuries black Americans were denied the opportunity to be educated. Many are aware that it was against the law in southern states to teach slaves to read. This was due to the belief that it would make a slave unwilling and unsuited for life content to be held as property. Free blacks in many areas were also denied the right of an education. They were “free” in name only and even though they were forced to pay taxes, they were not allowed to participate in society as “free” men and women.

Many “free” and slave states had laws that stated that black children were not allowed to attend public schools. Those families who could afford to do so would hire teachers and tutors to educate their children. In many free communities, the families would also would bind together and raise money for land and buildings to create their own schools. Often these private schools for black children were held in the local black church if one was available.

Here in Toledo, the Warren AME church in the 1850s began a private school for black children.  Due to the low population of blacks in the area, they were unable to sustain the school.  Local blacks in Toledo, including father Garland WHITE paid for private tutors when they could afford to do so.

In 1870 Mr. WHITE filed suit against the City of Toledo due to them excluding his daughter from attending the school in the ward of his residence.  As shared in the post regarding the History of the Toledo Public School district, the city integrated its schools starting in the 1870s.  Per a newspaper article published on March 3, 1871 in the “Weekly Louisianian” a black newspaper published out of New Orleans, LA – Mr. WHITE filed suit against TPS because of its segregation policy that excluded his daughter from attending the school in his ward.  The article, shown below, stated he owned property valued at $10,00.00 yet his daughter, due to her race,  was denied the right to attend, even though  he paid property taxes that supported that school.  More research is required but it can be concluded that since TPS integrated in 1873 that Mr. WHITE won his case.  This occurrence in our local area is one of many similar stories that shows the historical dedication to educational opportunities that black families have consistently maintained.

Many are aware that slaves were not allowed to learn to read as shared above.  Because of it being taboo, many blacks who were enslaved in the south had a yearning for knowledge and a desire to be educated and to educate their children.  They were aware, following the Civil War that being uneducated was to be at a disadvantage.  They were much more likely to be victimized due to a lack of literacy.  Many of the North’s black teachers, schools, and social/community organizations, galvanized around providing educational opportunities for newly freed slaves.  Abolitionist societies also formed new goals of sending white, former anti-slavery activists to the south to educate the newly freed slaves.  The federal government, during the Reconstruction period, opened “Freedman’s Schools” for black people to attend.  These schools were filled with blacks seeking an education.

 

Due to the lack of public education in the south for poor white children, even they were allowed to attend those schools during the Reconstruction era.  By 1870 there were nearly 2000 Freedman’s Bureau Schools in the south. They served to educate both children and adults.  Information obtained during the Reconstruction era showed that the areas with Freedman’s schools had a literacy rate, ten years post Reconstruction, that was 6 points higher than areas that had not been fortunate enough to have a Freedman’s school in their community.   Examples of this dedication to acquiring knowledge can also be observed by studying the lives of more famous black  historical figures – two of which were recently in the media:  Frederick Douglass and W.E.B. DuBois.

One of my favorite black men in history is Frederick Douglass.  As many are aware, he was born a slave.  When he was young the wife of one of his masters taught him the alphabet until her husband told her that doing so would ruin him.  Fortunately, she had succeeded a bit and his thirst for knowledge was born.  Young Douglass tricked white boys into teaching him to read and he would later go on to escape slavery and become the most well known black abolitionist in America in his era and even today.  After his escape from slavery and the publishing of his widely read “Narrative,” many whites could not believe that he had written the text himself due to the belief that blacks could not learn to write as eloquently as Douglass.  The “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave” was written only seven years after Douglass escaped slavery.  He was one of the first to prove that skin color and ethnic origins was not a factor in intelligence and the ability to learn – a desire for knowledge and a dedication to that desire was all that was needed for him to become one of the most famous black activists in American history.

Dr. William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B) DuBois is also a very well known black intellectual.  Dr. DuBois was born in 1868 to parents who had been free people of color.  He was the first black man to receive a PhD from Harvard University.  He also published one of the first historical studies on the role of blacks in a political era entitled “Black Reconstruction in America.”  His later work “The Philadelphia Negro” was the first sociological study of urban black Americans.  His longevity as a researcher, activist and writer is impressive and at its core he always exhibited the fact that black Americans, when not limited by intense race based prejudice and oppression, would have similar socio-economic successes in life as other American ethnicities.    Many who have heard of Dr. DuBois are usually aware of his views that are believed to have differed substantially from those of Booker T. Washington, in that he favored what was then called a “classical” education for black students instead of only an “industrial” education focused on specific trades.  This debate lives on in regards to both of these men and their educational philosophies and it is important to note that both Dr. DuBois and Washington believed that blacks were able to be educated in the same ways as whites and other Americans.  That if taught, blacks would learn, that racism and oppression were a factor not only in educational opportunities but also in economic and commercial opportunities.  And especially if knowledge was desired, it would be consumed.  Their differences primarily centered around politics, economics and opportunity, not a disagreement on the ability of black Americans to learn.

In summation, this modern era whereas more black Americans have completed an education than ever before, is a true testament to the cultural aspects of a dedication to education.  This attitude regarding education – that it is a means to an improvement in the condition of one’s life, has never faded in black America and is at an all time high.  Of course, like all socio-economic issues, education is an area that is still a subject of hot debate and where there are many ideas about ways to increase the quality of education in order to have more positive economic outcomes based on a particular type of education.  These debates harken back to those of Dr. DuBois and Washington mentioned above and are a lasting legacy of the culture’s focus on education within the black demographic.

1870 Census – Colored Population in Toledo (and Surrounding Communities)

I have completed transcribing the 1870 census of the black and colored population of Toledo and its surrounding areas. I want to note that I also went back and reviewed other communities surrounding Toledo, within Lucas County for the transcribing of Census information for the years 1840, 1850, and 1860. Communities included in those census revisions are Maumee, Monclova, Whitehouse, Waynesville, Spencer, Springfield, Sylvania, Oregon, Swanton, Manhattan, and Adams townships. Not all of the revised census transcriptions include black or colored residents, but 1860 specifically included some black/colored residents in Adams and Maumee.

In regards to the 1870 census, the data for this census is below. The number of black and colored families increased in the Lucas County and Toledo area from only 121 families to 246, an increase of over 50%. The total individuals enumerated increased from 269 to 768.

Please note that I did find that some families were enumerated twice in the 1870 Census in the the Toledo area and they are included in the totals as it was a raw transcription. I noticed some duplicate names (particularly the FIELDS family), but since this took multiple days, I did not go back and delete any from the spreadsheet below.

The 1870 Census was the first Census in America that included all formerly enslaved individuals by name. After the Civil War, many black Americans were very transient in nature and traveled across the country looking for relatives and work. During the time that this Census was taken, the Reconstruction Era was still ongoing, and the subsequent Jim Crow/Black Laws had not yet taken effect in the southern part of the United States where a majority of black Americans resided.

Some interesting local history information that can be obtained from the 1870 Census about blacks  in Toledo and its surrounding communities in Lucas County are:

One of Warren AME church’s first documented pastors Bingman ARNETT was enumerated in Toledo, Ward 4. He was 32 years old and was born in Pennsylvania. Two other black men were listed as Ministers or Clergymen but it is unknown which churches, if any they were affiliated with in the Toledo area. They were John WHITE and William WEARING.

George FIELDS had an occupation of “Photographer” and was the city’s first black professional photographer. He originally worked out of a building previously owned by William H. Merrit mentioned in a previous blog post who was involved in the Underground Railroad in Toledo.

Toledo had two black Saloon Keepers – William CARTER and John TILLON/TILDON (also listed as a Restaurant Keeper on the Census but was in the City Directory as a Saloon Keeper). Due to the black population being so small, these business owners catered to a diverse crowd within the city’s Ward 4.

Benjamin TALBOT was listed as a blacksmith in the city and was one of Toledo’s oldest residents.  TALBOT lived in Ward 1, which is now Downtown Toledo and per the article mentioned in the 1862 Race Riot of Toledo, he lived near the corner of Erie and Jefferson Street. His home was ransacked and his furniture destroyed in the 1862 riot. In 1870, he was 76 years old and was originally from Maryland.

Lucy DAY was listed on the Census as a Teacher and can be recognized as one of the first black educators in the city. Lucy DAY lived in Ward 3 with her daughter Florence who was born in Canada. Lucy DAY was born in Ohio.  It was interesting that all of the black/mullatto children eumerated near her were listed as having the occupation of “Scholar.”

My fourth great grandmother – Mary ANDERSON JONES was listed with her children, including my third great grandmother Nancy JONES ROBINSON as living in Washington Township in 1870.  This family, I believe located to Toledo in approximately 1865.  They are my first documented ancestors to have moved to Northwest Ohio and were originally from Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania by way of Ross County, Ohio where Nancy JONES ROBINSON was born.  By 1870 Mary’s husband John JONES is suspected to have passed away.  There is reference to a death of a John JONES in the city of Toledo death registers in 1867, but this John JONES cannot be confirmed to be the one who died in 1867 due to the common name.

The most popular surname in the Toledo area was JONES.  There were 24 individuals with the surname JONES who lived in various parts of the cities and in different townships.  It is unknown whether or not they were related.  John JONES, my fourth great grandfather, on previous census records from Ross County, Ohio in 1860 stated that he was from Maryland.  There were no JONES’ in Toledo who stated that they were from Maryland and the only JONES family from Pennsylvania, where Mary ANDERSON JONES hailed was her own household.

Residing In Family # Name Age Gender Race Occupation  Real Estate  Personal Estate Birthplace Father Foreign Born? Mother Foreign Born Married in 1870 Month Attended School Cannot read Cannot Write COMMENTS
Toledo Ward 1 1 Haynes, Mary W. 25 F Black Domestic Servant Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 2 Jones, Della 19 F Mullatto Domestic Servant
Toledo Ward 1 3 Bowen/Rowen, Andrew 30 M Black Domestic Servant Virginia X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Bailey/Railey, George W. 17 M Black Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Charles 48 M Black Teaming Canada X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Charles A. 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Elizabeth 38 F Black Keeping House Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 1 4 Gray, Henry A. 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 5 Garrett, Charlotte 59 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 5 Garrett, Joseph 58 M Mullatto Whitewasher Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Elvia 8 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, George 37 M Mullatto Photographer  $         3,000.00  $              400.00 Georgia
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, George W. 0.75 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Mary 27 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Mary K. 5 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 6 Fields, Otis G. 7 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, Eliza 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, Ellen 24 F Mullatto Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, John 5 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 7 Watkins, John H 39 M Mullatto Barber  $         1,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Alice 2 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Minister of Warren AME Church mentioned in church history (www.warren-ame.org/church-history/)
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Elizabeth 15 F Mullatto At-Home Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Ella 4 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Ellen 40 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Hiram 40 M Mullatto Drayman  $              200.00 Kentucky X X Enumerated in mullatto household of George Mason – Farmer
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Mary 19 F Mullatto At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Newton 14 M Mullatto At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, Squire 17 M Mullatto Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 1 8 Lee, William W. 6 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 8 Ross, William 30 M Mullatto Blacksmith Ohio
Toledo Ward 1 9 Curtis, Mary 18 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio X
Toledo Ward 1 10 Butler, Anna 17 F Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 1 10 Riley, Mary 14 F Mullatto At-Home Missouri
Toledo Ward 1 10 Robison, Mary 31 F Mullatto At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Benjamin 76 M Mullatto Blacksmith Maryland
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Louis 18 M Mullatto Barber Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Lucinda 22 F Mullatto At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 1 10 Talbot, Sarah 51 F Mullatto Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 1 11 Miles, Emily 28 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 11 Parott/Parett, Mary 50 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Alice 14 F Black At-Home Tennessee X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Betsey 49 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Henry 51 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Julia 18 F Black At-Home Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Maggie 16 F Black At-Home Kentucky X
Toledo Ward 1 12 Gray, Wesley 12 M Black At-Home Tennessee X Enumerated in white household of Emily Birdwell – House Keeper
Toledo Ward 1 13 Gibson, Joshua 22 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X Enumberated in white household of David Smith -lumber dealer
Toledo Ward 1 14 Blannon, Andrew 24 M Black Domestic Servant Virginia Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 1 15 Coup, Henry 34 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 2 16 Johnson, Edward 40 M Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 16 Morrison, George 30 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 17 Lynn, Henry 50 M Black Cooper Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 17 Lynn, Mary 49 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 2 17 Thomas, Mary 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 2 18 Pendleton, Jordan 14 M Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 18 Pendleton, Vina 36 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Henry 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Henry 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Jane 30 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 19 Patterson, Martha J. 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 20 Hargoes, James M. 30 M Black Laborer Georgia X X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 20 Hargoes, Martha 27 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Angeline 33 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Edward 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 21 Points, Frank 9 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 21 Stuart, John 14 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 22 Henry, Jenny 27 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 22 Henry, Thomas P. 37 M Black Barber Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 23 Douglas, Eliza 38 F Black Keeping House District of Columbia Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 2 23 Douglas, Henry 42 M Black Cook Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 24 Parker, Anna 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated in white household of Alonzo Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 2 24 Parker, Frank 16 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Anna 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Henrietta 6 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, Victoria 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 25 Willard, William 32 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 26 Price, Mary 19 F Black Servant Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 27 Davis, Hatt 45 M Black Laborer Tennessee Enumerated in white household of Lacken – Farmer
Toledo Ward 2 27 Duma, Annie 21 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 27 Duma, Jennie 24 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 27 Dunning, Frank 45 M Black Laborer Georgia
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), David 15 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Mary 1 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Mary 35 F White Keeping House Ireland X X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Nancy 10 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Thomas 5 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), Thomas 40 M Black Rail Road Porter Virginia Enumberated in white household of Cromwell Lloyd -merchant
Toledo Ward 2 28 Randel(Randall), William 18 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Albert 11 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Harry 16 M Black Servant Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Lucy 18 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 29 Wood, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 30 Newton, Calvin 45 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 30 Newton, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated with black household of Samuel Franklin – Barber
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, Adaline 21 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated with black household of Samuel Franklin – Barber
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, Ed 25 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 31 Hunter, George 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, James 16 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, John 38 M White Laborer Germany X X
Toledo Ward 2 32 Miller, Mary 37 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Arthur 48 M Black Clerk North Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Elias 7 M Black At-Home Wisconsin X
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Isabella 10 F Black At-Home Michigan X
Toledo Ward 2 33 Spence, Lavinia 26 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Alonzo 4 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in white household of Francis Granger – Farmer
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Cora 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Eliza 29 F Black Keeping House Delaware
Toledo Ward 2 34 Legay, Stella 7 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Adelia 10 F Mullatto At-Home Canada X
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Edward 38 M Mullatto Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 35 Fletcher, Mary 45 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 2 36 Davis, Rhoda 39 F Black Servant North Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Albert 16 M Black At-Home Canada Enumerated in white household of PV Brown – Agent
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Isabella 22 F Black At-Home New York
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, John 18 M Black At-Home Michigan
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, Sarah 36 F Black Keeping House Maryland Enumerated in white household of Merrill – Justice of the Peace
Toledo Ward 2 37 Brown, William 36 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 38 Hughes, Malina 40 F Black Keeping House Alabama Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 39 Wilson, Emma 50 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated in whit household of Sophia Benson
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, Francis 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio Enumerated in white household of Ellen Hunter
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, James 30 F Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 40 Gaar, Samuel 3 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 41 Brown, John 40 M Black Barber South Carolina
Toledo Ward 2 41 Brown, Julia 28 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 42 Harris, Henry 25 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 42 Harris, Levinia 22 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Adam 6 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Adam 40 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Anna 45 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Ellen 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Kattie 14 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 43 Griffith, Susan 9 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 44 Blackburn, Charlotte 38 F Black Keeping House Conneticut
Toledo Ward 2 44 Blackburn, George 40 M Black Cook Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Rachel 65 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Sebastian 60 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 45 Ryen, Willie 19 M Mullatto Laborer Canada
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, John 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, John 40 M Black Barber Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, Lillia 2 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 46 Hugan, Matilda 25 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 2 47 Ackley, Lucy 20 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 47 Ackley, Maggie 29 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Caroline 5 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Eliza 20 F Black Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Emma 7 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, John 32 M Black Blacksmith Alabama
Toledo Ward 2 48 Tate, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Andy 16 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Ellen 8 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, James 14 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sally 50 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sam 50 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 49 Hawes, Sammy 12 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 50 Jackson, Moses 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Catherine 55 F White Keeping House  $         3,000.00 Germany X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), George 20 M Black Sailor Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Julia 18 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 51 Coleman(Koleman), Mary 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 2 52 Carlisle, Elizabeth 23 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, Lucy 35 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, William 50 M Black Laborer  $         2,000.00  $          1,000.00 Indiana
Toledo Ward 2 53 Elliott, Willis 22 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 54 Gray, Mary 26 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 54 Gray, Thomas 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 55 Smith, Matilda 18 F Black Servant Virginia
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Abrahm 39 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Annie 26 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Gerlene 3 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 2 56 Presser, Thomas 16 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 57 Thompson, Hiram 18 M Black Domestic Servant South Carolina X X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Catherine 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Eliza B 22 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Francis 8 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, J.C. 57 M Black Barber  $         2,000.00 Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 58 Greener, Louisa 17 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 59 Pendleton, Lavinia 20 F Black Domestic Servant Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, Frances 23 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, James R 23 M Mullatto Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 60 Evans, Samuel 0.666666667 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio Oct
Toledo Ward 3 61 Wilson, Emily 50 F Mullatto Keeping House  $         1,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Mary 51 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Willis 20 M Black Barber Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 62 Elliot, Wilson 52 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 63 Green, Susan 10 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 64 Davis, Nancy 22 F Black Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 65 Johnson, Elizabeth 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 65 Johnson, Mary E 4 F Black At-Home Canada
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Addie 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, John 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, John 30 M Black Physician Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 66 Thomas, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Etta 6 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Sarah 29 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 67 Martin, Thomas 28 M Mullatto Cook New York
Toledo Ward 3 67 Smith, Carrie 19 F White Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Ada 15 F Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Carter 58 M Mullatto Cook Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Jessy 9 M Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Lucinda 38 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 68 Ferguson, Willie 6 M Mullatto At-Home Illinois
Toledo Ward 3 68 Robinson, Braxton 94 M Black Boarder Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 69 Fearing, Sarah 42 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 69 Fearing, Wm. L 49 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 70 Day, Florence 12 F Black At School Canada X
Toledo Ward 3 70 Day, Lucy S. 35 F Black Teacher Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Charles 12 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Della 10 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Harvey 14 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, James 39 M Mullatto Barber Ohio Enumberated in white household of Robert Smith
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Lilly 3 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Lilly 32 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Mary 5 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Netta 0.166666667 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 71 Abrams, Robert 8 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 72 Dooms, John 8 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 72 Dooms, Margarett 30 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 73 Logan, John 35 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 74 Slater, Samuel 25 M Black Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, David H 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, Ellent 32 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 75 Getrell, Wm 42 M Black Plasterer  $         3,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 75 Harris, Samuel 24 M Black Laborer Canada
Toledo Ward 3 75 Johnson, Marlins 25 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 76 Francis E 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, George 32 M Black Laborer Massachuesetts
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, George H 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 76 Remley, Mary E 20 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 77 Anderson, Nelson 45 F Black Boarder Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Annie 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Charles 9 M Black Scholar Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Eliza 29 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Ellen 7 F Black Scholar Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Isaac 51 M Black Laborer Missouri Enumerated in white household of Emily Birdwell – House Keeper
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Julia 0.166666667 F Black At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 78 Harris, Mary 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 79 Jones, Louisa 19 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 79 Speed, Eliza 20 F Black Hair Dresser Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ovals, Lizzie 38 F Black Servant Oiho
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Charles P 11 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Hester 13 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, John 9 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Julia 15 F Black At-Home Onio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Madilta 34 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Mary 17 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 80 Ward, Sam 40 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 81 Chen, James 52 M Black Roofer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Ann 16 F Black Scholar Michigan Enumerated with mullatto household of Thomas Jones – Barber
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Ellen 21 F Black At-Home Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Julia 19 F Black At-Home Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, Mary 40 F Black Servant Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 82 Williams, May 55 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 83 Walbridge, Mary 20 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Aaron 10 M Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Ardilda 16 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Jane 20 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 84 Henry, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Edward 15 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Eva 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Frederick 7 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Joseph 35 M Black Hotel Waiter New York
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, Nettie 1 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 85 Van Brunt, William 10 M Black At-Home Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Adaliza 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, John 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Joseph 45 M Black Physician Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Mary 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 86 Thomas, Sarah 3 F Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in black household of Wm. Getrell – Plasterer
Toledo Ward 3 87 Cowan, William 22 M Black Servant Pennsylvania Enumerated in white household of Henry H Warren – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 88 Ward, Mary 45 F Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 89 Ward, Julia 13 F Black Servant Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 3 90 Humphy, Josie 18 F Black Servant Tennessee
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Albert 7 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Ida E 9 F Mullatto At-Home Canada X
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, John E 39 M Mullatto Tailor South Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Manda 4 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Mary 35 F Mullatto Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 91 Myrick, Myrtle 0.666666667 F Mullatto At-Home Ohio Oct Enumerated with black household of Westley Miles – Carpenter
Toledo Ward 3 92 Smith, George 22 M Black In Jail Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 93 Knox, Mary 20 F Black In Jail Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 94 Moore, David 25 M Black In Jail Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 95 Washington, Jno 28 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 96 Washington, Edward 20 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 96 Washington, Mary E 22 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 97 Johnson, Ardella 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 97 Johnson, Henry 30 m Black White Washer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Catharine 30 F Black Keeping House Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Charles A. 4 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, John W 2 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Mary E 5 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Thomas 38 M Black Brick Mason Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, Thomas T 0.416666667 M Black At-Home Ohio Jan
Toledo Ward 3 98 Ward, William E 7 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 99 Toney, Joe 28 M Black Grocer  $         2,000.00  $          1,000.00 Georgia
Toledo Ward 3 100 Benson, Henry 40 M Black Laborer Georgia
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wight, Frederick 35 M Black Laborer Arkansas
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wright, Lucy 4 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 101 Wright, Mary 23 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 3 102 Ackley, Gustavus 22 M Black Laborer New York
Toledo Ward 3 102 Adams, Peter 40 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Adams, Sarah E 47 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 3 102 Handy, Edward 51 M Black Laborer Delawae
Toledo Ward 3 102 Hossieos, George 24 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 102 Lwson, Emma 16 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Wearing, William 35 M Black Minister Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 102 Williams, Conel 35 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 102 Young, Daniel 26 M Black Brick Mason Delawae
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, Betty E 3 F Black At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, John W 13 M Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, John W 29 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania Enumberated in white household of Rob Titus
Toledo Ward 3 103 Young, Martha 22 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 104 Walker, Charles 40 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 104 Walker, Eliza 35 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Ellen 50 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Emily 12 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 105 Lawson, Maria 17 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Augustus 1 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Eli 8 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Mary 31 F Mullatto Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Roswell 5 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Thomas 9 M Mullatto At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 3 106 Jones, Wiley M. 40 M Mullatto Cook at Hotel  $         1,000.00 North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 107 Walker, Hattie 20 F Black Seamstress Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 107 Walker, Lottie 50 F Black Seamstress Indiana
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Dennis 8 M Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in black household of Stephen Wood – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Garlin 0.166666667 M Black At-Home Ohio Apr
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Jacob 29 M Black Laborer  $         1,500.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 108 Lee, Laurie 26 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, George 24 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, Sarah 22 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 3 109 Lee, Theodore 1 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 110 Price, James 27 M Black Carpenter  $         2,000.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 110 Price, Martha 19 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 111 Chase, Allen W 37 M Black Saloon Maryland
Toledo Ward 3 111 Chase, Eliza 28 F Black Keeping House Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Elizabeth 12 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Fanny 9 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, John 3 M Black At-Home Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Mary 1 F Black At-Home Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Sarah 29 F Black Keeping House Canada X X
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Thomas 7 M Black At-Home Canada X X Enumerated in white household of Wm Haskins – Farmer
Toledo Ward 3 112 Leangin, Wm 35 M Black Laborer  $         3,000.00 Louisiana
Toledo Ward 3 113 Arnold, John 18 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 113 Pressey, Thomas 15 M Black Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 114 Washington, George 18 M Black Cook Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 115 Tate, Harry 28 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Hayes, Anna 16 F Black At-Home Ohio Enumerated in white household of Henry Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, Annette M 18 F Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, Elizabeth 49 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 116 Merritt, William 50 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 3 116 Van Brunt, Eddy 15 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 117 Hafler, George R 24 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 3 117 Highwarden, Jacob 25 M Black Barber Canada
Toledo Ward 3 117 Smith, Wilmot 22 M Black Barber New York
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, Jesse 40 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, Mary 35 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 118 Walden, simon 18 M Black At-Home Ohio
Toledo Ward 3 119 Rue, Thomas J 30 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 120 Alexander, R. 19 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Anna 1 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Charles 4 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Edward 35 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 121 Williams, Minervy 19 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 123 Ward, Sam 40 M Black 1st Cook Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 124 West, William 39 M Black Hotel Porter Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 125 Delaney, Thomas 34 M Black Yard Man Ohoi
Toledo Ward 4 126 Ball, Wm 53 M Black Cook Ohio Lived in white household of Jessy Simon – Restaurant Keeper
Toledo Ward 4 127 Hall, JJ 35 M Black Porter Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 4 128 Grandy, Iser 28 M Black Porter Ohio Enumberated in white household of Henry burch – Farmer
Toledo Ward 4 129 Johnson, Carolina 40 F Black Domestic Servant New York
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Charles 9 M Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Henrietta 43 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 130 Carter, Wm 23 M Black Saloon Keeper  $              500.00 North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 130 Highwarden, J. 34 M Black Laborer  ` Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 130 Jackson, John 31 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 130 Johnson, Paul 40 M Black White Washer Alabama
Toledo Ward 4 130 McCown, H. 26 M Black Mill Fireman Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 130 Sly, Bella 24 F Black Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 130 St. Clair, John 38 M Black Laborer South Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 130 Stewart, H 33 M Black Sailor Canada Enumerated in white household of Irwin O Brown – Farmer
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Fred 14 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Hatty 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Jessy 9 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, John 7 M Mullatto Ohio Enumerated in black household of Lewis Thomas – Merchant
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Sarah 36 F Mullatto Keeping House Kentucky Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Virginia 11 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, W. H 50 M Black Cook at Hotel Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 131 Balley, Wallace 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 132 Hart, Julia 69 F Mullatto Virginia
Toledo Ward 4 133 Veerman, Carolina 30 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 4 133 Veerman, John 10 M Black X
Toledo Ward 4 134 Jenkins, Julia 40 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 4 134 Jenkins, Robert 46 M Black White Washer  $              700.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Arnett, Bingman 32 M Black Minister Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 4 135 Highwater, Jack 36 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Alice 13 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Hatty 65 F Black Maryland
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Helen 14 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Henrietta 10 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Mary 22 F Black Dress Maker Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Varry 21 F Black Dress Maker Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, William 16 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Jenkins, Wm. 22 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 135 Smith, Willworth 22 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 135 Vina, Charles 23 M Black Engineer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Gusta 9 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Hatty 20 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Mary 47 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Henry, Victoria 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 136 Jones, Virginia 38 F Black Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 137 Alexander, Robert 39 M Black Barber Maryland
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Abraham 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, D. R. 44 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, John 14 M Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Lewis 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Margaret 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Bradfield, Robert 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 137 Tanner, Lizzie 19 F White Domestic Servant Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 138 Smith, Mary 12 F Black Dress Maker Tennessee
Toledo Ward 4 139 Joyner, James 20 M Black Barber Michigan
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Charlotte 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Lewis 33 M Black Merchant North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Lewis 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Mary 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 4 139 Thomas, Rosa 6 F Black Ohio Enumerated in white householdWm Whitney – music instrument dealer  (look up Whitney high school)
Toledo Ward 4 140 Laws, Mary 17 F Black Domestic Servant Alabama
Toledo Ward 4 140 Montgomery, Eddy 40 M White Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 140 Tildon, Jenny 40 F Black Delaware
Toledo Ward 4 140 Tildon, John 40 M Black Restaurant  $         4,000.00  $          2,000.00 Delaware
Toledo Ward 4 141 Anderson, Ann 4 F Black Kentucky
Toledo Ward 4 141 Anderson, John 23 M Black Cook & Eating at Hotel Tennessee
Toledo Ward 4 141 Andeson, Lizzie 27 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated in black household of Marshall Peters – Laborer
Toledo Ward 4 142 Brown, Ann 38 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 142 Brown, James 41 M Black Steward at Hotel Ohio
Toledo Ward 4 143 Jones, James 49 M Black Yard Man Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 144 Van Brunt, T 40 M Black Hotel Waiter Missouri
Toledo Ward 5 145 Williams, Simon 42 M Black Yard Man Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 146 Brice, Sam 26 M Black Hotel Porter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 147 Price, Jery 30 M Black Hotel Porter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 148 Jones, John 17 M Black Bell Boy Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 149 Arnold, Albert 16 M Black Bell Boy Ohio Enumerated in Lucas County Infirmary *
Toledo Ward 5 150 Tillon, John 58 M Black Keeps Restaurant  $         8,000.00  $          1,000.00 Delaware X X Enumerated in Lucas County Infirmary *
Toledo Ward 5 150 Tillon, Sarah 40 F Black House Keeper Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 5 151 Brown, Mary 16 F Mullatto Cook Delaware
Toledo Ward 5 152 Brown, Calvin 18 M Black Waiter at Hotel Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 153 Miller, James 16 M Black Works on Tug Boat Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 5 154 Harris, Isaac 42 M Black Hotel Cook South Carolina
Toledo Ward 5 155 Davis, Manus 48 M Black Hotel Cook Florida
Toledo Ward 5 156 Douglas, Lewis 20 M Black Hotel Running Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 157 Cowel, John 22 M Black Omnibus Driver Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 158 Brown, James 25 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 159 Williams, Ben 25 M Black Hotel Waiter New York
Toledo Ward 5 160 Means, James 22 M Mullatto Hotel Waiter Virginia
Toledo Ward 5 161 Cannon, John 26 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 162 Motten, William 20 M Black Hotel Waiter Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 163 Smith, Thos. 22 M Black Hotel Waiter Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 164 Hartnell, James 21 M Black Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 165 Cox, Arthur 22 M Mullatto Hotel Waiter Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 166 Schaffer, Harry 20 M Mullatto Bell Boy Ohio
Toledo Ward 5 167 Whitfred, John 21 M Black Barber Ohio Enumerated in white household of James McCabe – Weaver
Toledo Ward 5 168 Washington, Ed 22 M Black Barber Ohio Enumerated with white household of Winslow Isherwood – Man of Tobacco
Toledo Ward 5 169 Bolden, Levy 22 M Black Hotel Porter Alabama
Toledo Ward 5 170 Fergeson(?), Edward 15 M Black Works in Hotel Canada Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 5 170 Fergeson(?), Susan 22 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Charly 9 M Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Edward 68 M Black Barber Virginia
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Lenice 8 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Nancy 6 F Black Canada
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Olivia 14 F Black Canada X Enumerated in white household of Wm Hamon – Laborer
Toledo Ward 5 170 Furgeson(?), Susan 11 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Eveline 51 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Henry 50 M Black Brick Mason  $            800.00 Indiana
Toledo Ward 5 171 Lot, Stony 17 M Black Tailor Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Frank 2 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Jerry 27 M Mullatto Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 6 172 Hetzel, Maggie 25 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Anna 8 F Black Canada X
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Emory 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Georgianna 29 F Black Keeping House Mississippi
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, Jane 3 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 173 White, John N 37 M Black Clergyman  $         3,000.00  $              150.00 Virginia Enumerated in black household of John Tildon – restauranteur
Toledo Ward 7 174 Cramer, Susan 50 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X x Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 7 174 Cramer, William 50 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X Enumerated in white household of Henry Kingsbury
Toledo Ward 7 174 Walker, William 30 M Black White Washer Kentucky X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 7 175 Craig, Ambrose 83 M Black At-Home North Carolina
Toledo Ward 7 175 Craig, Missouri 22 F Black Seamstress Canada
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Elvira 15 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Fanny 17 F Black At-Home Indiana X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Mary 13 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Olivia 35 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 7 175 Franklin, Samuel W 38 M Black Barber North Carolina
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Albert 7 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, George 25 M Black Vessel Cook Indiana X X
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, George 4 M Black Ohio Enumerated in white household of Mary Calder – Keeping House
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Levi 10 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Samuel 12 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rhodes, Susan 28 F Black Keeping House Ohio X X
Toledo Ward 7 176 Rodes, Minnie 1 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Horace 9 M Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Mary 28 F Mullatto Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macey, Thomas 32 M Mullatto Carpenter  $         1,000.00  $              150.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 177 Macy, Elenora 3 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 177 Perrin, Virginia 18 F Mullatto At-Home Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 178 Ward, Anna 35 F Black At-Home
Toledo Ward 7 178 Washington, George 40 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 178 Washington, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 179 McCoul, Mary 14 F Black Domestic Servant Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Henry 29 M Black Laborer  $         1,000.00 Virginia X X Enumerated in black household of Sam Ward – Cook
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, James 3 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Martha 26 F Black Keeping House Alabama X X
Toledo Ward 7 180 Jackson, Wm 0.25 M Black Ohio May Enumerated in white household of Wm Hamon – Laborer
Toledo Ward 7 181 Nelson, Caroline 45 F Black Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 181 Nelson, John 48 M Black Laborer Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 182 Mitcherson, Ella F 26 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Toledo Ward 7 182 Mitcherson, Smith 27 M Black Laborer Kentucky X X
Toledo Ward 7 183 Getsel, David 47 M Black Plasterer  $         1,000.00 Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 183 Getsel, Johanna 34 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Alice 9 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Edward 70 M Mullatto Brick Mason  $         1,800.00 Virginia Enumerated with mullatto household of Thomas Macey – Carpenter
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Martha 40 F Mullatto Keeping House Virginia
Toledo Ward 7 184 Preston, Martha 11 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Carey 2 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), John 36 M Black White Washer  $              400.00 Arkansas
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), John 0.75 M Black Ohio Sept
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Lizzie 24 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Lizzie 6 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 185 Mattimore(?), Minnie 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Peachy 24 F Black Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Wm 34 M Black Brick Layer  $            600.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 186 Myles, Wm 0.5 M Black Ohio Feb
Toledo Ward 8 187 Miles, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 187 Miles, Wm M 30 M Black Plasterer  $              200.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Andrew 12 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Entorah 20 F Black Seamstress Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, George 0.833333333 M Black Ohio July
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Louisa 45 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, M S 16 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Madison 47 M Black Plasterer  $            800.00 Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Thomas 15 M Black Laborer Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 188 Bell, Wm 18 M Black Barber Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Alvey 40 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Ellen 12 F Black Alabama X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Frank 8 M Black Alabama X
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Laura 13 F Black Alabama X Enumerated in white household of George Watson
Toledo Ward 8 189 Miles, Westley 42 m Black Carpenter  $            800.00 Kentucky Enumerated in white household of C.W. Ferguson – Farmer
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, James 35 M Black Laborer New Jersey
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, Jenny 3 F Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 8 190 Hawkins, Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Andy 40 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Robert 1 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 191 Driskole(?), Susan 36 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 192 Cole, Anna 28 F Black Keeping House Canada
Toledo Ward 8 192 Cole, John 36 M Black Laborer  $            500.00 Canada
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Bella 22 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Louisa 4 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Maggie 6 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Richard 2 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 193 Roderick, Robert 27 M Black Laborer Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Helen 10 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, J.C. 57 M Black Barber Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Kate A 15 F Black Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 194 Greener, Louisa 17 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, Ann 3 F Mullatto Ohio Enumerated in black household of Carter Ferguson – Cook
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, John 40 M Mullatto Saloon Keeper  $         1,800.00  $              250.00 New York Enumerated in mullatto household of Benjamin Tabot – Blacksmith
Toledo Ward 8 195 Douglas, Julia 33 F Mullatto Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Lizzie 27 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Sarah 7 F Black Michigan X
Toledo Ward 8 196 Cox, Vernal 30 M Black Hotel Waiter  $            600.00 Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Albert 5 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Henry 31 M Black Laborer New York
Toledo Ward 8 197 Jones, Sarah 29 F Black Keeping House New York
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ann 46 F Black Keeping House Maryland
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ellen 15 F Black Maryland Enumerated in mullatto household of Hiram Lee – Drayman
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Ester 0.416666667 F Black Ohio Jan Enumerated in white household of George Reynolds – Proprietor of Flour Mill (Reynolds Rd??)
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Henry 25 M Black Laborer Maryland Enumerated with lawyer Frank Hurd
Toledo Ward 8 198 Cunningham, Mark 17 M Black Laborer Maryland
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Aussy 18 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Ellen 14 F Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, George 19 M Black Teamster Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 199 Stephen, Wm 10 M Black Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 199 Turner, James 40 M Black Laborer Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 199 Turner, Rachel 45 F Black Keeping House Indiana
Toledo Ward 8 200 Coleman, Amy 40 F Black Keeping House South Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 200 Coleman, James 42 M Black Laborer South Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Bella 18 F Black Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Flemming 60 M Black Laborer Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 201 Donerey, Sarah 53 F Black Keeping House Kentucky Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 201 Johnson, Sam 40 M Black Laborer Kentucky Enumerated in white household of  W.W. Brainard – lumber merchant
Toledo Ward 8 201 Welles, Sophia 16 F Black Domestic Servant Kentucky
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, C.E. 38 F Black Keeping House New Jersey
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, G.B. 18 M Black Laborer New York Prisoner in the Lucas County Jail
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, Henry M 16 M Black Horsler Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, J.B. 44 M Black Hotel Waiter  $              200.00 New York
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, John T 14 M Black Ohio X Enumerated at work
Toledo Ward 8 202 Wilson, Wm S. 11 M Black Ohio X
Toledo Ward 8 203 Rosedale(?), Joseph 12 M Black Delaware
Toledo Ward 8 203 Rosedale(?), Mary 30 F Black Keeping House Delaware
Toledo Ward 8 204 Hall, Toasey 19 M Black Domestic Servant Kentucky Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Ann 21 F Mullatto Keeping House North Carolina
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Ellen 1 F Mullatto Ohio
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Sam 6 M Mullatto Ohio Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Thomas 30 M Mullatto Barber  $              200.00 North Carolina Twin
Toledo Ward 8 204 Jones, Walter 4 M Mullatto Ohio
Adams 204 Marshall, Ann 10 F Mullatto New York
Adams 204 Marshall, James 6 M Mullatto New York
Adams 205 Fields, Henry 15 M Mullatto Kentucky
Adams 205 Fields, John 4 M Mullatto Ohio Twin
Adams 205 Fields, Mary 29 F Mullatto Keeping House Indiana
Adams 205 Fields, Mary 4 F Mullatto Ohio
Adams 205 Fields, Wm. 40 M Mullatto Farmer  $          1,000.00 Kentucky
Adams 206 Jones, John 30 M Black Laborer Massachuesetts
Adams 207 Cunningham, Wm 18 M Black Horsler Kentucky
Adams 208 Snotwon, Arebelle 16 F Black Not Noted
Adams 208 Snotwon, Lincoln 7 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snotwon, Minerva 14 F Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, G. Grant 5 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, George 10 M Black Not Noted Enumerated with black household of Rachel Turner – Keeping House
Adams 208 Snowton, Henry 10 M Black Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Jane 38 F Black Keeping House Not Noted Enumberated in black household of Edward Points – laborer
Adams 208 Snowton, Joe 40 M Black Farmer  $         4,600.00  $          1,200.00 Not Noted Mentioned as victim in 1862 race riot in Toledo
Adams 208 Snowton, John 20 M Black Laborer Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Joseph 18 M Black Laborer Not Noted
Adams 208 Snowton, Royal 7 M Black Not Noted
Manhatten 209 Norris, Jesse 44 M Black Plasterer Virginia X X
Manhatten 209 Norris, Rebecca 42 F Black Keeping House North Carolina X X
Manhatten 210 Cunningham, Edward 50 M Black Farmer  $              140.00 Virginia X X
Manhatten 210 Cunningham, Mary 80 F Black Keeping House Virginia X
Manhatten 211 Cromwell, Hannah 52 F Black Keeping House Canada X X Enumerated with John G Shattuck auctuioneer
Manhatten 211 Cromwell, Thomas 55 M Black Farmer Ohio
Manhatten 212 Johnson, Albert 35 M Mullatto Farm Hand Virginia
Manhatten 213 Williams, Edward 50 M Black Farmer  $         1,500.00  $              100.00 Kentucky X X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Emelie 39 F Black Keeping House Ohio X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Lincoln 8 M Black At-Home Michigan
Manhatten 213 Williams, Sarah 18 F Black At-Home Indiana X
Manhatten 213 Williams, Virginia 10 F Black At-Home Michigan
Manhatten 214 Hall, Anthony 34 M Mullatto Laborer Maryland
Manhatten 214 Hall, Catharine 32 F Mullatto Keeping House New York
Manhatten 214 Hall, Claude H 2 M Mullatto New York
Manhatten 214 Hall, Geoge F 0.25 M Mullatto Ohio Feb
Manhatten 215 Baker, William 16 M Black At-Home Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Bettie 6 F Black Ohio
Manhatten 215 Mason, George 48 M Black Farmer Virginia X X
Manhatten 215 Mason, Hattie 0.25 F Black Ohio May
Manhatten 215 Mason, Julia 13 F Black At-Home Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Mary 37 F Black Keeping House Kentucky
Manhatten 215 Mason, Mary 3 F Black Ohio
Manhatten 216 Flatshaw, Thomas 21 M Black Laborer Maryland Twin
Manhatten 216 Lyons, William 18 M Black Laborer Maryland
Manhatten 216 Peters, David 21 M Black Laborer Virginia X X
Manhatten 216 Peters, Jan 57 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated in white household of John Denny
Manhatten 216 Peters, Lavina 15 F Black At-Home Virginia
Manhatten 216 Peters, Marshall 64 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Virginia X X
Manhatten 216 Peters, Mary 18 F Black At-Home Virginia X Twin
Manhatten 216 Peters, Rose 17 F Black At-Home Virginia X
Manhatten 217 Powers, Elizabeth 45 F Black Keeping House Tennessee X X
Manhatten 217 Powers, John 66 M Black Laborer Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Powers, William 24 M Black Laborer Indiana X X Enumerated at work
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Betsey 18 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania Enumerated at work
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Frances 46 M Black Farmer  $              500.00 Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Frank 16 M Black Sailor Pennsylvania
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Louise 47 F Black Keeping House Maryland X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Margaret 12 F Black At-Home Canada
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Prisilla 79 F Black At-Home Maryland X X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, Richard 19 M Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Manhatten 217 Saunder, William 14 M Black At-Home Canada
Maumee Ward 1 218 Royster, Moses 21 M Black Laborer North Carolina X X
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Elizabeth 27 F Mullatto Keeping House Ohio
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, George 26 M Mullatto Laborer Ohio
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Georgiana 3 F Mullatto Ohio Enumerated at work
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, Mary E 0.5 F Mullatto Ohio Dec
Maumee Ward 2 219 Cromwell, William 10 M Mullatto Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Anna 4 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Della 5 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, Eliza 67 F Black Keeping House Virginia X X Enumerated in white household of G. Walbridge (female)
Monclova 220 Lee, Elizabeth 3 F Black Ohio
Monclova 220 Lee, George 70 M Black Farm Hand Virginia X X
Monclova 220 Lee, Laura 21 F Black Virginia X
Monclova 220 Lee, Louisa 23 F Black Keeping House Virginia X
Monclova 220 Lee, Mary 21 F Black Virginia X X
Oregon 221 Dent, C. B. 2 F Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, C. E 6 F Black Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, George 10 M Black Kentucky Enumerated with black household of William Cramer – Laborer
Oregon 221 Dent, John 48 M Black Laborer Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, John 14 M Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, Julia 13 F Black Kentucky
Oregon 221 Dent, L. J. 8 F Black Ohio
Oregon 221 Dent, Minnie 4 F Black Ohio X
Oregon 221 Dent, S. J. 37 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Springfield 222 Thompson, Clara 4 F Black Ohio
Springfield 222 Thompson, H.H. 28 M Black Farm Laborer  $              400.00 Ohio X
Springfield 222 Thompson, Jan 32 F Black Keeping House Canada
Springfield 222 Thompson, John 4 M Black Ohio
Springfield 223 Thompson, Harriet 19 F Black Keeping House Canada X
Springfield 223 Thompson, Isa A 0.333333333 F Black Ohio Feb
Springfield 223 Thompson, John W 23 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio X
Springfield 224 Doshan, Frank 4 M Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Jan 30 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Springfield 224 Doshan, Jan 7 F Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Paul 2 M Black Ohio
Springfield 224 Doshan, Robert 55 M Black Farm Laborer Kentucky X X
Swanton 225 Hays, Lewis 5 M Black Michigan Enumerated at work
Swanton 225 Hays, Louisa 32 F Black Keeping House Canada
Swanton 225 Hays, Silas 1 M Black Ohio Enumerated in hotel of John C Ruttlege
Swanton 225 Hays, William 45 M Black Laborer  $            600.00 Missouri
Swanton 225 Hays, William Jr. 12 M Black Canada X X
Sylvania 226 Garrison, William H 38 M Black Barber New York
Sylvania 227 Manual, Isaac 1 M Black Michigan X
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Anna 20 F Black Keeping House Canada
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Robert 6 M Black Canada X
Sylvania 227 Manuel, Victoria 2 F Black Michigan X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Anderson 43 M Black Laborer Miss X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Augustus 3 M Black Canada
Sylvania 228 Harper, Corren 11 M Black Canada X X
Sylvania 228 Harper, Henrietta 4 F Black Michigan
Sylvania 228 Harper, James 4 M Black Ohio Enumerated in black household of Ira Hurst – Farmer (wife Elizabeth was said to be his daughter)
Sylvania 228 Harper, Matilda 24 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 228 Harper, Wallace 1 M Black Ohio
Sylvania 229 Nathan, Joseph Jr 32 M Black Works in Stave Factor Pennsylvania
Sylvania 229 Nathan, Joseph Sr 58 M Black Employed in ___  $              100.00 Pennsylvania
Sylvania 230 Wood, Albert H 22 M Black Works in Stave Factor Michigan
Sylvania 230 Wood, Theodore 24 M Black Works in Stave Factor  $            130.00 Michigan Enumerated at work
Sylvania 231 Harris, Thomas 55 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia X X
Sylvania 232 Johnson, Cornelia 13 F Black At-Home Canada X X
Sylvania 232 Johnson, David 53 M Black Farmer  $            400.00 Kentucky
Sylvania 232 Johnson, Delia 34 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 233 Jackson, Henry 20 M Black Farm Laborer Canada
Sylvania 233 Wood, Amanda 55 F Black Keeping House Kentucky X X
Sylvania 233 Wood, Stephen 58 M Black Farmer  $            400.00  $              150.00 New York X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Bentley 8 M Black Ohio X Enumerated at work
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Eleanor 10 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elizabeth 12 F Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elizabeth 33 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Elsie 6 F Black Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ezella 4 F Black Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ira 13 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Ira 48 M Black Farmer  $            500.00  $              200.00 Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Nellie 3 F Black Ohio
Sylvania 234 Hurst, Nora 0.416666667 F Black Ohio Jan
Sylvania 234 Wheeler, Amos 65 M Black Living with Daughter District of Columbia
Washington 235 Johnson, Iva 36 F Black Keeping House Ohio
Washington 235 Johnson, James A 18 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio X
Washington 235 Johnson, Lewis P 39 M Black Farm Laborer  $            300.00  $              100.00 Vermont Enumerated at work
Washington 235 Johnson, Theresa 8 F Black Ohio
Washington 235 Johnson, Wm W 15 M Black At-Home Ohio X
Washington 236 Griffin, Chas 30 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia
Washington 237 Pyatte, Solomon 22 M Black Farm Laborer South Carolina
Washington 238 Jones, Thomas 19 M Black Farm Laborer Virginia
Washington 239 Jones, Frances 9 F Black Pennsylvania
Washington 239 Jones, Martha 18 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania X X
Washington 239 Jones, Mary 49 F Black Keeping House Pennsylvania X
Washington 239 Jones, Nancy 10 F Black At-Home Pennsylvania X
Washington 240 Blackwell, Henry 30 M Black Farm Laborer Tennessee
Washington 240 Griffeth, Charles 28 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio
Washington 241 Osburn, Anderson 48 M Black Farm Laborer  $              100.00 Kentucky
Washington 241 Osburn, Margaret 1 F Black Ohio
Washington 241 Osburn, Rachel 37 F Black Keeping House Tennessee
Washington 241 Osburn, Rosanna 9 F Black Arkansas
Washington 241 Osburn, Sarah 12 F Black At-Home Arkansas X
Washington 241 Osburn, Theodore 3 M Black Ohio
Washington 242 Maynes, Alex 24 M Black Gardner  $         9,000.00  $              100.00 Georgia X
Washington 242 Maynes, Emma 24 F Black Keeping House Vermont
Washington 243 Christianson, L. 27 M Black Farm Laborer Tennessee
Washington 244 Cromwell, Wm 20 M Black Farm Laborer Ohio
Waterville 245 McCabe, John 30 M Black Laborer Missouri
Waynesville 246 Curtis, Abraham 59 M Black Kentucky X X
Waynesville 246 Curtis, Eliza 43 F Black Indiana X X
Total Number of Individuals 768
Total Number of Households 246
Number labled “Black” 644
Number labeled “Mullatto” 117
Number labeled “White” 6
Number of Mixed Race Families (white wife) 2
Number of Mixed Race Families (white husband) 1
First Most Popular Surname (Jones) including
one of my Jones families
24
Second Most Popular Surname (Johnson) 17
Numer of individuals who could not read/write 53
Number of individuals in Jail (David Moore, George Smith
and Mary Knox)
3
Number of children who attended school within the year 69
Average Age 24
Average Age of Males 25
Average Age of Females 22
Number of Females 371
Number of Males 397
Age of Oldest Male (Braxton Robinson) 94
Age of Oldest Female (Mary Cunningham) 80
Age of Youngest Male (Garlin Lee) 1 month
Age of Youngest Female (Julia Harris) 1 month
Toledo Residents 604
Sylvania Residents 33
Manhattan (North End) Residents 41
Swanton Residents 5
Monclova Residents 8
Oregon (East Side) Residents 9
Maumee Residents 6
Adams Residents 19
Washington Residents 25
Springfield Residents 12
Waynesville Residents 2
Waterville Residents 1
Value of Real Estate  $   73,430.00
Value of Personal Estates  $   12,440.00
Birthplace of AL 9
Birthplace of AR 4
Birthplace of Canada 48
Birthplace of CT 1
Birthplace of DE 9
Birthplace of DC 2
Birthplace of FL 1
Birthplace of GA 6
Birthplace of Germany 2
Birthplace of IL 4
Birthplace of IN 23
Birthplace of KY 81
Birthplace of LA 3
Birthpalce of MD 18
Birthplace of MA 2
Birthplace of MI 18
Birthplace of MS 2
Birthplace of MO 5
Birthplace of NJ 2
Birthplace of NY 19
Birthplace of NC 22
Birthplace of OH 330
Birthplace of PA 36
Birthplace of SC 11
Birthplace of TN 12
Birthplace of VT 2
Brithplace of VA 69
Birthplace of WI 1
Not noted birthplace 15
Occupation of Barber 32
Occupation of Bellboy 3
Occupation of Blacksmith 3
Occupation of Brick Mason/Layer 5 NOTE:  This was a wealthy demographic with real estate valued at $3200)
Occupation of Carpenter 3 NOTE: This was a wealthy demographic with real estate valued at $6800)
Occupation of Clergy/Minister 3 NOTE:  First pastor of Warren AME church included
Occupation of Cook 19
Occupation of Clerk 1
Occupation of Cooper 1
Occupation of Domestic Servant 39
Occupatoin of Drayman 1
Occupation of Dress Maker 3
Occupation of Engineer 1
Occupation of Farmer 10 NOTE:  This was the wealthiest demographic with real estate valued at $16400
Occupation of Farm Laborer 16
Occupation of Grocer 1
Occupation of Hair Dresser (female) 1
Occupation of Horsler 2
Occupation of Hotel Worker 21
Occupation of Restauranteur 1
Occupation of Laborer 85
Occupation of Physician 2
Occupation of Photographer 1
Occupation of Plasterer 6
Occupation of Porter 2
Occupation of Railroad Porter 1
Occupation of Roofer 1
Occupation of Sailor 3
Occupation of Saloonkeeper 2
Occupation of Seamstress (females) 4
Occupation of Tailor (males) 2
Occupation of Teacher (Lucy Day) 1
Occupation of Teamster 2
Occupation of Vessel Cook 1
Ocupationof White Washer 6
Occupation of Stave Factory Worker 3
Occupation of Tug Boat Laborer 1
Occupation of Yard Man 3

 

Maternal Genealogy – JONES/ROBINSON Families

Some of my earliest ancestors to move to Toledo arrived in Northwest Ohio between 1860 and 1870.

Nancy JONES was born in 1859 in Bainbridge, Ross County, Ohio. She was enumerated with her family on the 1860 United States Census when she was 8 months old.

Her parents were Mary JONES and John Wesley JONES who was listed as an “ME Minister” on the Census record. I believe that “ME” stood for “Methodist Episcopal. My maternal line have been members of Warren AME (African Methodist Episcopal) Church for many generations.

Nancy was the youngest child listed for Mary and John JONES on the 1860 Census. She had two older siblings listed as well. Her older sister’s name was Martha JONES and her older brother’s name was John JONES Jr.

John W. JONES Jr. was the oldest child. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1852. Martha JONES was also born in Pennsylvania but in 1854. Nancy JONES was the first of the JONES children born in Ohio.

John W. JONES Sr. stated on the 1860 Census that he was born in Maryland. He was born in approximately 1805. Mary JONES stated that she was born in Pennsylvania in approximately 1823.

I found Mary JONES and her three children on the 1870 Census living in Washington Township, Lucas County Ohio.  Washington Township is now a part of the City of Toledo.   On the 1870 Census there was another JONES child listed who was a younger sister to Nancy JONES. The youngest JONES child was named Francis JONES and she was born in 1860. I believe that they moved to Northwest Ohio around 1866. The Toledo Lucas County Public Library has a death record for a John JONES in 1867 but I am not certain that this is “my” John JONES due to the common name. However, he is the only John JONES listed in the death records between 1860 and 1870 and I am 80% certain that this is “my” John JONES.

During my genealogical compilation for this family, I was faced with many odd, in my opinion, difficulties. When you start out doing genealogy, one should start from the most current generation and work their way back. Luckily, Nancy JONES did not die until 1950 so my grandmother and her sister (my great aunt, who is still alive) knew Nancy JONES and they were able to provide me with a decent genealogical link to her that was easily verified via the census record information contained within familysearch.org.

My grandmother remembered Nancy as Nancy BAKER. She stated that Nancy, her grandmother, had lived with them for a time when she was a child. So going by that information, I looked up Nancy BAKER and basically hit a wall on this family that lasted for about 10 years.

In 2010 the 1940 census was released. I was not actively researching during that time due to regular life’s busy-ness so it wasn’t until around 2012 that I searched again for genealogical information. I looked up my grandmother on the 1940 Census since she was born in 1936. I thought it would be cool to have such a close link to historical information. My grandmother died in 2004 and I still miss her dearly and I was thinking of her at the time when I looked her up in 2012.

That query did pull up my grandmother, her siblings, including my great aunt who is still alive and their parents. It also showed that a Nancy BACKER lived next door to them which finally gave me a true connection to Nancy BAKER.

Many times on Census records surnames and given names are horrendously mispelled. Finding a Nancy, who was listed as approximately 80 years old in 1940 was extremely exciting for me!

From there, I found that Nancy had been living with a man named Stephen BAKER on the 1930 Census. At that time she also lived near my great grandmother. A big tip for people using Census records for genealogy is to peruse the entire handwritten page for neighbor’s names. Many times, people lived near their relatives or with their relatives and with today’s technology, if you search for a specific name, it will only provide you a printed, transcribed version of exactly what you were looking for so it is up to you to do additional digging.

After much research, I found out that Nancy was not originally married to Stephen BAKER. I had been looking for my 2nd great grandmother under the last name of BAKER due to thinking that BAKER may have been her maiden name. Instead I found out that Nancy was originally married to a man named James Edward ROBINSON.  Stephen BAKER was her second husband.

I found the death certificate of my 2nd great grandmother on familysearch’s database for Ohio Deaths. She died in 1941 from kidney disease. On her death certificate her mother was listed as Nancy JONES and her father was listed as James ROBSON. As with BACKER on the Census, ROBSON was written incorrectly. She was actually a ROBINSON.

This discovery allowed me to pull up all of the information regarding James Edward ROBINSON and Nancy JONES ROBINSON on Census records all the way back to 1900.

Unfortunately, I have yet to find a solid marriage certificate for them. Due to Nancy being in Lucas County, Ohio on the 1870 Census, I know that she lived in this area. Lucas County kept pretty good records for deaths, marriages, and births long before most states started to do this consistently. I did find a marriage record for a James E. ROBERTSON and Amanda JONES for November 11, 1874. I am somewhat sure that this is James and Nancy ROBINSON. Throughout the years ROBINSON has been spelled in many variations including the following: ROBINSON-ROBSON-ROBESON-ROBISON-ROBERTSON and another crazy variation that I will speak of below, which caused another brick wall for me that lasted until this year (2015).

James Edward ROBINSON showed up in the city directory for the City of Toledo in 1876.

He death certificate states that he was born in Harrisburgh, Pennsylvania.  His father’s name was listed as Frank ROBISON and his mother as “Becky” only.

Upon further review of ROBINSON’S in Pennsylvania on the 1860 and 1850 census records, I found a James E ROBINSON on the 1850 census listed with his father Franklin ROBINSON and mother Ellen ROBINSON.  Even though Ellen differed from what was listed on James’ death certificate as his mother (Becky), I am 100% sure that Ellen was James E ROBINSON’s mother.  Many times the informant who fills out a death certificate did not know the name of the person who passed away.  Information I have found lead me to believe that Ellen ROBINSON may have died or separated from her husband Franklin by the early 1860s.  On the 1860 census, Franklin ROBINSON is listed with his son but this time the name was listed a Edward James ROBINSON.  On various census records throughout the years, James Edward was listed as Edward James.  I am certain that he was the same person due to always being listed with his wife Nancy and their children as either James E, James Edward, Edward, or Ed.  The switching of the first and middle name is actually what made me know 100% that this family was the ROBINSON family I was looking for.

I have yet to find any death records for Franklin ROBINSON or Ellen ROBINSON.  I did find an exciting tidbit regarding Ellen in an online scholarly article about the effect of the Fugitive Slave Act on blacks in Harrisburgh, PA, but I will save that for another entry.

Due to census records not providing much detailed information prior to the 1850 census, I am temporarily at another road block for this family.  An interesting tidbit I am currently looking into is the fact that Franklin, Ellen, and James E ROBINSON lived with Thomas and Dinah WATKINS on the 1850 census.  I am going to attempt to connect the WATKINS families with the ROBINSON family and I am hoping that they are relatives of Ellen and/or Franklin.

After moving to Toledo, James Edward ROBINSON married Nancy JONES.  They eventually had seven children – Francis (1876-1932), Edna (1880-1929), Edward (1884-1951), Florence (1892-1941), Fred (1894-?), Naomi (1894-?), and William Alton (1898-1917).

Florence ROBINSON was my second great grandmother.

James Edward ROBINSON died in 1910.

As stated above, Nancy JONES ROBINSON BAKER did not die until 1950.  She was 90 years old when she passed away.

One of the best finds I discovered just this year was finally locating James Edward and Nancy ROBINSON on the 1880 Census.  After searching through both electronic records at the library via micro film, on family search and ancestry.com via census records and via hardcopy 1880 census indexes at the Toledo Lucas County Public Library, I was unsuccessful in locating this couple in Toledo or in PA or anywhere really.

I had decided this past summer to make a visit to the Newberry Library in Chicago since we make frequent visits there to see family.  I was initially only looking up a specific family that also was an early settler in NW Ohio – the WHITFIELDS.  I will write another post about that research later.  After finding the information I was looking for on the WHITFIELDs, I decided to look up other holdings of the library and they had a book which was loosely titled (going off my memory here, will edit later with the correct title) Blacks in Ohio in 1880.  It basically was a book that contained a list of all the black or mullatto or other “colored” residents in the state of Ohio on the 1880 census.

Within that book, I found all of my Ohio lines and due to there not being many black people in Toledo itself in 1880, I also saw a entry which listed a Nancy and Ed “BOBISON” who had older children who matched the names of the older ROBINSON children mentioned above.

I wanted to scream at the library!!  It was soooo exciting for me to see them in this book!  I had almost given up on this line and just chalked it up to not having any other way to research them.

Upon reviewing the 1880 “BOBISON” family it showed that they lived in a house with a Mary JONES and her children, John and Francis JONES.  This was how I found an entire new generation of the JONES family detailed above.

I am currently trying to connect the ROBINSON and JONES families to see if they both lived in the Harrisburgh, PA area.  Hopefully it won’t take another 10 years to find a connection.

 

Early Black Churches in Toledo – Warren AME Church and Third Baptist

WARREN AME CHURCH

norwoodchurch

Warren AME (African Methodist Episcopal) Church was the first all-black church in Toledo and Northwest Oho.

The picture at the top of this blog is actually a photo of some members of the congregation of Warren in the mid 20th century. My maternal (my mother’s family) ancestors have been members of this church for about 7 generations starting in the 1860s.

My great grandmother is in the photo on this blog. Those who are family members will recognize her. That photo, based on her appearance and my guess about her age, looks like it was taken in the mid 1930s or early 1940s. I took a picture of this photo with my cell phone at Warren in December 2014. It is hanging in one of the hallways of the church along with other historical information and photographs.

According to their website, Warren AME was first mentioned in the documents of the African Methodist Episcopal records in 1849. It began based upon the desire of early black Toledoans to have a place of worship to call their own. Local historians and church records show that the church began in 1847 in downtown Toledo. The church later moved to the location on Norwood Ave, in Toledo, which is where the photo mentioned above was taken. I loved the church on Norwood (photo of that building in within this post). As a child I saw it as a mystery and always wondered where all the steps and doors led and I enjoyed looking at all the stain glass. The church moved to its present day location at Collingwood and Indiana Avenue in the mid 1990s.

Warren was founded by free persons of color in Toledo. Blacks have been in Toledo, Ohio since the earliest beginnings of the city. My personal research and review of early microfilmed city directories show that in the first directory, black citizens were listed in various professions. They were primarily barbers, cooks, and laborers. These early residents are the persons who got together and formed Warren in the 1840s.

Due to the time period, it is evident that all were free persons of color. They may have been run away slaves or they may have been born free and just migrated to Northwest Ohio due to it being further away from slave states than southern Ohio. My earliest ancestors who came to Northwest Ohio were free persons of color from Pennsylvania.

THIRD BAPTIST CHURCH

third baptist

Third Baptist was the first all black Baptist church in Northwest Ohio. My paternal (father’s family) line attended Third Baptist and we have had members of our family attend this church for about six generations. Like Warren, I was always intrigued by Third Baptist’s building, located at the corner of Pinewood Ave and Division Street.

My step-great grandmother was a secretary of the church for many years and her family were one of the original founding families of Third Baptist. Her maiden name is on one of the stain glass windows and I always thought it was because it was her church (in my childhood mind, I thought she owned it) until I got older and discovered her family’s connection to the institution!

Third Baptist was founded in 1868. Persons who were former members of integrated First Baptist of Toledo wanted to start a “colored” Baptist church feeling they would be able to worship more freely with their own organization. Those who were members of First Baptist petitioned that church to dismiss them from membership and after a while First Baptist consented and Third Baptist was formed.

Third Baptist was founded after the end of the Civil War so was a combined effort made between former slaves and former free persons of color. My step-great grandmother’s family were free people prior to the Civil War for instance but many of those drawn to the new church were escaped slaves or formerly enslaved persons. They housed their church in the middle of what was then the “Negro Section” of Toledo.

Though Toledo in that period did not have define “colored” or “white” areas, most black people, like other ethnic groups in Toledo lived around each other. In this era, black Toledoans primarily lived in what was designated as the “Pinewood District.” That district included many streets which are no longer there due to the creation of public housing locations (Brand Whitlock, Albertuss Brown, and the Port Lawrence Homes) along with the federal highway system (interstate 75).